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- വിര നിർമ്മാർജന ഗുളികയുടെ പ്രാധാന്യത്തെക്കുറിച്ച്
- തീപ്പൊള്ളലേറ്റാൽ- പ്രഥമ ശുശ്രൂഷ
- അല്ഷൈമേഴ്സ് രോഗം മുന്കൂട്ടിയറിയാം
- തീ പ്രശ്നമാണ്
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- ലിംഗമാറ്റ ശസ്ത്രക്രിയ
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- പോളിയോ എന്ന രോഗം
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- കാഴ്ച കുറവനുഭവിക്കുന്ന കുട്ടികൾ
Health scenario of Woman in ancient perspective
The primary as well as the secondary sexual differences of the woman from those of man has given her a distinctive social position throughout the many ages of human history .When we speak about “women’s health” it encompasses many different issues during the different stages of her life. Every woman goes through a series of profound changes during her lifetime. Like menarche, pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause. Now her claim to equality with man has been seriously put forth and has gained recognition in all civilized countries. She claims neither the privileged position with its implication of relative weakness and inferiority nor the subordinate position as an object of sense gratification asserting her equal partnership with the man in the enterprise of life and wants neither less nor more.
The Vedic period is divided into two- namely the Early Vedic period which starts from 2000 BC and continues till 1000 BC. And the Later Vedic period which starts from 1000 BC and lasts till 600 BC.
Health aspects of woman are well-thought-out since the ancient time. Early forms of Charaka samhitā are dated to the period of 900 BCE - 600 BCE,while the later editions of Charaka samhitā are dated to later centuries. Early forms are dated to the period of 900 BCE - 600 BCE. The Vedic period (or Vedic age) (c. 1500–500 BCE) was the period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The precise time span of the period is uncertain.Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period. The Suśrutasamhitā is an important Sanskrit text on medicine, considered to be one of the earliest major works related to detailed study of medicine and surgery. Written by Sushruta, it is commonly dated to the period of the 6th century BC. So the time period of Charakasamhita and Sushrutasamhita is near about contemporary to the Vedic era. Hence references related to woman health in the Veda particularly in Rigveda and Atharvaveda [Ayurveda being a upaveda ofAtharvaveda] are helpful to recognize different aspects of woman’s health in that era . One special branch of octopartite Ayurveda [bala] has been devoted to the physiology and pathology of the maternity stage of a woman’s life.
In Rigveda krimi [micro organisms] are pointed out as a causative factor of different Gynecological disorders.[Yonivyapada] Many references are available about gynecological disorders in later-Vedic period samhita . The term Yonivyapada [gynecological disorders] encompasses almost all types’ diseases of woman. In Veda Garbhadhana [induction of pregnancy] chapter is described in detail. In Atharvaveda also it is stated , that krimi [Micro organisms] are the major causative factors which causes mrutavasta [Still birth] and vandhya [Infertile]  More over againVeda instructed that every society should be very cautious towards the infant’s health .Minimum number of infants death [balamrutyu] is a sign of healthy society. Garbhapata [abortion] is considered as a one of the most evil actions among the seven most condemned acts. Krimi causes miscarriage [Garbhastrava], abortion [garbhpata], stiibirth [Mrutavatsa] and infertility [vandhyatwa] in woman. Mantra incantation is specified to treat all above conditions
In Veda, Garbhadhana has given very much importance and having a healthy child is the responsibility of both that are man and woman. As well as there should be provision for appropriate dhatri [wet nurse] for taking care of the newly born child and mother. Many other references are given in Ayurveda texts also which can be divided in two categories as Medical references and General References. Yet again these can be organized as in context of physiology like growth, aging, constitution and in context of pathology like diseases, medication, and dosage etc. with this the health status of ancient woman can be inferred .
Age -The sages of India by long observation and thought knew the difference in the pace of growth and decay of the constitutions of both man and woman. In physical and mental development and maturity as well as in their decay man is slower than woman. This fact is described in observations like the following. “The wise physician should know that a man of twenty five years of age and a woman of sixteen years of age have attained to an equal stage of sexual maturity .The catamenal discharge which starts from the age of twelve in a woman comes to a cessation at the age of fifty when the body enters in its stage of senescence.”
Diseases- Woman is liable to all diseases which human flesh is recipient to and in addition to these diseases she suffers from diseases and disorders peculiar to her due to the special structure of her sexual organs. These diseases are called gynecic diseases.  In the chapter of Gulma , a special type of it called Raktagulma is described which is a peculiar affection of the female species as it is a uterine affection .Again while describing vata diseases, Charaka says that her position of dependency on man , her lack of enlightment ,an her actual inclination to shyness ,delicacy and modesty, impose restrictions on the prompt discharge of natural urges . 
Constitution- Constitution of female is being considered weaker than that of a male is compared with the constitutions of the child and the aged persons, and accordingly medications are to be made milder for her. As “for king and kingly persons, and great men, for women, and persons of delicate constitution as well as for children and the aged [we shall described the dosage of oil and honey]” 
General references- Charakasamhita being primarily a medical treatise takes a scientific and biological view of man and woman. Yet the social practices of the age and the relative imposition of woman have been mentioned explicitly sometimes and implicitly more often .
In the etiology of Raktagulma[Tumor], the social position of the in general is referred..In the description of posology woman has been described as unsteady by nature , tender ,wavering, easily disturbed and generally delicate ,weak and dependant on others .It is owing to this that is in emergency a weak patient should be first treated with non-distressing ,mild and generally delicate remedies and later on gradually , by heavy remedies which do not upset him or give rise to complications .This should be specially done in case of woman .
Code of conduct-In the chapter instructing the principles of good way and behavior of life to man, it is said that do not contemn nor confide in the woman overmuch, nor divulge a secret to her ,nor place her in power.
As a companion and entertainer- Women were also trained to play the part of companion and entertainer to man in his pursuit of pleasure. Charaka describe the part played by woman attendants and carriers who actually were to be well trained in the art of entertainment .Man should drink while being shampooed by clean ,loving ,beautiful , young and well trained woman decked in fine clothes ,jewels, and flowers suitable to season .
In selection of wife- In the description of the selection of wife, life's partner one of the qualifications she must needs possess her being Vashya that is amenable. One who is akin to man in mind, who is agreeable to and pleased with man’s advances, who enthralls all man’s senses by her excellent qualities was considered as amenable 
As a best aphrodisiac- The combination of the delectable objects of all the senses is found only in the woman and nowhere else. Hence woman‘s body and appearance have been considered the best aphrodisiac .
Woman as therapeutic agent- Mention of woman is made as a therapeutic agent in the diseases coming under the category of pitta type, specially fever and alcoholism. To counteract and subdue such a condition man should keep the company of agreeable woman wearing cool garments and garlands.
As poisoner- she has been used as a poisoner or poison girl. Evil minded women destroythe life of skillful king by means of poison and sometimes by various poisonous potions for the sake of winning good luck; man also loses his life quickly by contact with poison girls.
As a bed-mate-Man is advised to have as sexual partners different types of woman according to the season, one should have plump and passionate woman as bed-mate in the winter. Man one should drink wholesome sidhu or honey wine and enjoy the youthful loveliness of woman and gardens.
The vilification section which forms one of the eight branches of octoparatite Ayueveda is devoted solely to helping the man and there is no mention of the woman in this process. No names of renowned female scholars or vaidyas are founds in the texts. This is an indication that woman usually kept or were kept remote from learning the medical science .The ethics of medical practitioners as described in the texts indirectly give us an idea of the status of woman in ancient India No offering of meat by a woman without the order of her husband or guardian shall be accepted by thee.Physicians should not indulge in laughter or jokes with woman nor stay along with them, nor should they accept gifts other than food from woman.
Code of surgical nursing-The Code of surgical nursing prescribes the services of a female nurse. Not only that even the sight of a woman is considered undesirable. As sometimes by even sight and other contact with the woman; man will suffer the evil effects thereof.
Selection of wet Nurse[Dhatri] - If the mother milk is not available for a fetus there is a provision of wet nurse .Special criteria for selection of wet nurse is mentioned. It shows that very well established system was there in ancient time to provide mother milk.Apart from this in Ayurveda above regimens are specially focused in context of woman and her health .Excessive indulgence in sexual act is worst among those regimens which causes consumption .Sexual act with a woman during her menstrual period is the worst habit among all inauspicious habits. Pregnant woman is most contraindicated among those repairing abstinence from the intake of strong medicines ,resorting to sexual act and physical exercise .Happiness is the most important feeling among all feelings helping retention of conception .
The ceremony for having male progeny [pusavan vidhi ] is described in detail but there is no corresponding pre-natal strisavan ceremony. There is no special ceremony believed to be as inductive and constitutive of the procreation of a female child as it in case of male .References described above indirectly give us an idea of the status of woman’s health in ancient era .
In Ancient world –Woman held either a privileged position by virtue of her charm ,delicacy relative weakness or an inferior position to man and was regarded as a subordinate ,ornament and source of sense satisfaction , to be possessed ,decorated and pampered .Woman is only source of progeny and as such she was highly respected .
As a matter of fact it was the protection the woman received as the source of progeny, family honor and the repository of dignity that kept the woman from coming to the forefront. So her very usefulness was turned into her weakness Charaka, when he come to speak about this aspect of a woman’s life polishes assured and surpasses others in his tribute of the woman. But all these references which indirectly give us a glimpse of the status of woman in those times need not lead us to the conclusion that she was regarded as no more than a chattel or a useful toy to please the whims of man. Although her natural weakness and her anatomical peculiarities kept her far behind in the race as against man, her status as mother was highly respected. She was the fountain source of the propagation of race .Because childlessness was not only condemned, it was despicable. So it was the woman who brought the very purpose of life to fruition.
Thus all though the biological picture of woman as given in medical texts of old is not so glorifying to the woman , as she is by nature weak and inferior to man but her emotional and aesthetic value was regarded highly and her social value as the perpetuator of the race was almost adored .