Ayurveda Treatment Methods

A Guide Line To Ayurveda Treatments & Principles

Management of Madhumeha (Diabetes mellitus) with current evidence and intervention with Ayurvedic Rasa or Sidha medicines

 

INTRODUCTION:

 Ayurveda is the science of life. This holistic ancient science has two objects, viz. to maintain the health of healthy person, and to treat the sick person. The entire Ayurvedais frame on Trisutras- Hetu, Linga, Ausadha (3 principles- etiology, symptomatology andmedicament). Ausadha is the most important among them. Plants, animals and minerals, these three are the main sources of Ayurvedic drugs.

 

          Earlier, herbs were extensively use due to their easy availability and processing techniques. However, later on, the therapeutic values of minerals and metals were also identifies and they occupied an important place in Ayurvedic therapeutics. The therapeutic use of minerals and metals can be seen from the Samhita period but very much limited. They were mainly used in the form of purified and ayaskriti (metallic powder form). However, in the medieval period, minerals and metals are popularly used due to the invention of various special processing techniques like Sodhana (purification), Marana (incineration), Samaskara (which increases the potency), Murchhana (triturating up to fine disintrigation), etc. to convert the minerals and metals into non-toxic, colloidal state, easily administrable, absorbable and assimilable forms.

 

Diabetes Mellitus was known to Indian Civilization since Vedic period by name Madhumeha which literally means excessive urine with sweetness like honey. Ojameha, Kshaudrameha is thesynonyms mentioned in Ayurveda. Twenty types of Prameha if ignored and not treated properly in time can convert into Madhumeha and become incurable.

 

Nidana:

The general etiological factors of  Madhumehaare:

  • Addiction to the pleaser
  • Unwholesome sleep
  • Sedentary habit
  • Lack of exercise
  • Continue cheerfulness,
  • Excessive mental and physical works.

 

Purvarupa:

Ancientscholars have given a description about the purvarupa or prodormal sign and symptoms of Madhumeha. It is not available in modern Science.

  • Knotted hair,
  • Burning sensation,
  • Numbness in the hands and feet
  • Sweetness in the mouth
  • Thirst increases
  • Feeling of tiredness and laziness
  • Excess urination,
  • Increase sweating
  • Flies are stacked to urine
  • More sleep
  • Body odor becomes like raw flesh.

Bheda:

  Prameha patient are of two types:

1.     Sthula pramehi– means patients are obese.

2.     Krisha pramehi– means patients are emaciated.

3.     Sahaja Prameha (JuvenileDiabetes) - Madhumeha occurs during gestational period that means defect in sukra–sonita i.e.bija dosha (genetically defect) narrated by Acharya Charaka

 

Samprapti:

Madhumehais incurable and caused by aggravation of vata dosha. Naturally, ojas is of sweet taste. Due to the kharata of vata dosha, oja converts astringent taste and vata takes it into the urinary bladder; this causes madhumeha (Diabetes mellitus)1.

Madhumeha arising by two ways:

1.     Dhatukshaya janya- Due to mental stress and stain, food, drinks and activities that increases the vata dosha and causes dhatu kshya which leads to Madhumeha.

2.     Strotorodha janya- Due to causative factor kapha dosha and medo dhatu vitiated, and causes obstructiuon to strotas which causes aggravation of vata dosha and leads to Madhumeha.

 

Lakshana :-

               Patients pass urine - sweet and astringent taste

  - pale in color

  - unctuous

    Upadravas :

  • Udavarta (upward movement of wind)
  • Tremors
  • catching pain in the region of the heart
  • pain in the abdomen
  • loss of sleep
  • dryness of the mouth &throat.
  • cough and dyspnoea.
  • Prameh pidika  – Saravika, Kacchapika, Jalini, Vinata, Alaji, Sarsapi, Vidhrad

Diabetes mellitus

In modern science, Madhumeha can be co-related with Diabetes mellitus and is one of the cardinal problems in the medical profession because it cannot be cure but some extent controlled. Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin.

WHO estimated that diabetics are 19.4, 16.01, 13.9 millions in India, China, USA in 1995 AD and these increase 57.2, 37.6, 21.9 millions respectively in 2025 AD and the global prevalence of type II diabetes will be more than double from 135 million in 1995 to 300 million 2025. Presently it is estimated to affects about 347 million people Worldwide as per WHO.

There is a wide urban and rural difference in the prevalence of type II diabetes; the prevalence is 4-9% in rural and 12.1% in the urban population. In recent time, high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was also report in urban population. WHO estimates that now 62 million Indians are diabetic and it will have 79.9 million diabetics by 2030. A quarter of the income is devoted to diabetic care for a low-income Indian family that WHO said. Every fifth adult of the world is an Indian, for which India is consider as the Diabetic capital by International Diabetic Federation4.

 

Diabetes mellitus is of two types:

1.     Type I– Insulin depended diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile Diabetes mellitus.It is   known as Sahaja  pramehi, which is not curable.

2.     Type II– Non-insulin depended diabetics mellitus (NIDDM) or adult onset Diabetes mellitus. It is known as Sthula pramehi by Charaka  and  Apathya  Nimittaja  pramehi  by Susruta, which is curable.

3.     gestational Diabetes mellitus.

4.     secondary Diabetes mellitus.

 

Etiology:

Living an inactive sedentary life withinthe surrounding of automobiles, computers, and consumption a high calorific diet, in which contributes obesity lead to Type-II Diabetes mellitus. Now, obesity is considering as law full wife of Diabetes mellitus. Therefore, where there is obesity, there must be a chance of DM.

Pathogenesis:

 The development of type II Diabetesis a gradual process; it occurs that because of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle where insulin mediated glucose uptake is reducing. This is compensating by increased insulin secretion from the Beta cells. However, if the Beta cells are unable to compensate for the resistance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) develops with further deterioration of Beta cells and progression to become NIDDM. NIDDM is a relative insulin deficiency and failure of peripheral utilization of glucose. Obesity is one of the important etiological factors for type II Diabetes mellitus, which causes some degree of insulin resistance. The findings have suggested that 12.1% in the urban and 4-9% in the rural age adjusted general population are suffering from NIDDM. This indicates that the prevalence of IGT and NIDDM is high in urban population.

 

Clinical features:

Onset is usually gradual butrarely there may be acute onset. There may be no symptom or sign and disease may be diagnosis during routine investigation or examination. The classical features of diabetics may see as follows:

  • Polyuria,
  • polydipsia,
  • polyphagia,
  • rapid emaciation (dominant feature in case of IDDM),
  • dryness of mouth and throat,
  • constipation rarely
  • Instance itching.

 

Diagnosis:

Normally fasting blood sugar levelvaries from 70 – 110 mg percentage. If the level is higher than 110mg percentage the existence of diabetic is almost sure. On the other hand, post prandial blood sugar (2 hours after meal) level should not be more than 140mg percentage in normal individual. If it is more than 180 mg, percentage a diagnosis of Diabetes mellitus can be making with certainly. When the PP sugar level is between 130 mg and 180mg /100cc of blood, the subjects are possibly at risk for diabetes. In the urine, sugar is absent normally but in diabetic person it may be positive.

 

Complications

1.     Acute - Hypoglycemia and Diabetic ketoacidosis

2.     Long term - Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Neuropathy, Diabetic Foot and Diabetic Nephropathy.

 

Management: Aims of treatment

1.     Adequate control of hyperglycemia and glycosuria,

2.     Prevention of complications,

3.     Disappearance of diabetic symptoms, and

4.     Maintenance the appropriate body weight

 

All of these, the first two are very important.There are 4 methods of treatments available for diabetic patients

a)      Ladder diet regime,

b)      Diet and oral hypoglycemic agents,

c)      Diet and insulin, and

d)     Special treatment for complications

 

Although oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) Sulfonylureas / Biguanides are effective, pharmacological treatment in NIDDM, satisfactory glycemic control could not be sustain in a patient population over a span of continued use of any combination therapies available and the annual incidence of failure of OHA is around 3-30%. The OHE failure is an inability to achieve satisfactory response including the biochemical parameters even after highest permissible dose. Metformin combined with sulfonylurea can also improve glycemic control but it may fail to maintain effect on prolonged use in patients. Insulin therapy is usual indicated in these resistant cases of NIDDM. Intense blood glucose control by either Sulfonylurea or insulin is report to have increased the risk of hypoglycaemia4.

 

Rasausadhis:

InAyurvedic,system of medicine,various herbal, herbo-mineral and minerals are using popularly and very effectively in the treatment of madhumeha with different disease conditions. The Rasausadhis used in madhumeha with different disease conditions, which are giving below.

 

Table 1—Name of Rasausadhis used in madhumeha for different disease conditions

Sr.No

Name of Rasausadhis

Contents in bhasma/ sodhitaform

Dose

Anupana

1

Silajatu Rasayana

S.Silajatu

500mg increased up to 10gm

Honey,salsaradigana kwatha

2

Mashika bhasma

Swarnamakshika Bhasma

125-250mg

salsaradigana kwatha, Honey

3

Mehakalanal Rasa

Rasasindoor, Vanga Bhasma

250mg

Gunjamool Kwatha, milk

4

Panchanan Rasa

S.Parada, S.gandhaka, Abhraka Bhasma, Lauha Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma

250-750mg

cold water

5

Vanga Bhasma

Khuraka Vanga Bhasma

125-250mg

Honey, guruchi sattva

6

Naga Bhasma

Naga Bhasma

62.5-125mg

Haridra swarasa, jambu swarasa

7

Yasada Bhasma

Yasada Bhasma

125mg

Honey, trikatu kasaya, guruchi swarasa

8

Chandrakala Rasa

S. Silajatu, Rasasindoor, Vanga Bhasma, Abhraka Bhasma, Lauha Bhasma

250mg

Honey

9

MehamudgaraRasa

Lauha Bhasma

500mg

Honey

10

Trivanga Bhasma

Naga Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma Yasada Bhasma

125mg

Honey, butter

11

Swarna Vanga

VangaBhasma, S.Parada, S.gandhaka, S.Nausadar

125-250mg

Honey, butter

12

Sukramatrika Rasa

S. Parada, S. Gandhaka, Abhraka Bhasma, Lauha Bhasma, Sodhita Tankana

1-2gm

Dadimba swarasa, goats milk, water

13

Vangeswar Rasa

Rasasindoor, Vanga Bhasma

750mg

Honey

14

Vangeswar Rasa (Y.R.)

Vanga Bhasma, Kantalauha Bhasma, Abhraka Bhasma

375 mg

Kumari swarasa

15

Brihat Vangeswar Rasa

VangaBhasma, S.Parada, S.Gandhaka, Rajat Bhasma, Abhraka Bhasma, Swarna Bhsama

250mg

Goats milk, cow’s milk, curd

16

Chandraprava Vati

Lauha Bhasma, S. Silajatu, Swarnamakshika Bhasma

250-500mg

Water, milk,sunthi churna

17

Pramehakulantaka Rasa

S.Parada,S.Gandhaka, S.Silajatu, Vanga Bhasma, Abhraka Bhasma

125mg

Goats milk, luke warm water,Amalaki swarasa, kulattha kwatha

18

Vasantakusumakar Rasa

SwarnaBhsama, Naga Bhasma, Kantalauha Bhasma, Rajat Bhasma, Abhraka Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma

250mg

Sugar, honey, ghee

19

Vidangadi Lauha

Lauha Bhasma

250-500mg

Honey

20

Vedvidya Vati

Rasasindoor, Kantalauha Bhasma,Abhraka Bhasma, Naga Bhasma, S. Silajatu, Swarnamakshika Bhasma, Mandoor Bhasma, Vaikranta Bhasma, S. Kasis

250mg

Honey, Amalaki swarasa, guduchi swarasa

21

Vangastaka

S.Parada, S.Gandhaka, Lauha Bhasma,Rajat Bhasma, Abhraka Bhasma. Swarna Bhsama, Vanga Bhasma, Tamra Bhasma, Kharpar Bhasma

250mg

Honey, haridra churna, amalaki swarasa

22

Navayasa Yoga

Lauha Bhasma

250mg

Honey, ghee

23

Mehabazra Rasa

Rasasindoor, Kantalauha Bhasma, S. Silajatu, Swarnamakshika Bhasma, S. Manashila

750mg

Mahanimba churna, honey, rice washed water

24

Yogeswar Rasa

S.Parada, S.Gandhaka, Naga Bhasma, lauha Bhasma, Tamra Bhasma, Abhraka Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma

1gm

Honey

25

Vasanta Tilaka Rasa

Lauha Bhasma, S.Parada, Abhraka Bhasma, Swarna Bhsama, Vanga Bhasma

125-250mg

Honey, Guruchi swarasa

26

Indra Vati

Rasasindoor, Vanga Bhasma

250mg

Honey, ghee

27

Harisankar Rasa

Rasasindoor, Abharaka Bhasma

125-250mg

Honey, milk

28

Brihat Harisankar Rasa

S.Parada, S.Gandhaka, Lauha Bhasma, Swarna Bhsama, Vanga Bhasma, Swarnamakshika Bhasma,

250mg

Honey, ghee

29

Pramehasetu Rasa

Rasasindoor, Abharaka Bhasma

750mg

Honey, Triphala churna

30

Megnada Rasa

Rasasindoor, Swarnamakshika Bhasma, Abharaka Bhasma, Kantalauha Bhasma, S. Silajatu, S. Manashila

750mg

Honey

31

Anandadhairab Rasa

S.Hingula, S.Tankan

250mg

Adraka swarasa, Honey

32

Mehakesari Rasa

S.Parada, Swarna Bhsama, Vanga Bhasma, Kantalauha Bhasma,

250mg

Water, Amalaki swarasa

33

Mehantaka Rasa

S.Parada, S.Gandhak, Abhraka Bhasma, Swarna Bhsama, Rajat Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma

125mg

Honey

34

Sarveswar Rasa

Swarna Bhsama, Rajat Bhasma, Lauha Bhasma, Abharaka Bhasma, Swarnamakshika Bhasma, S. Silajatu

250mg

Triphalakwatha, rasnadi kwatha,Honey

35

Apurbamalinivasanta Rasa

Vaikranta Bhasma, Abharaka Bhasma, Tamra Bhasma, Swarnamakshika Bhasma, Rajat Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma, Lauha Bhasma, Rasasindoor, S. Tankana

750mg

Guduchi sattva,sugar

36

Pramehachintamani Rasa

Rasasindoor, Abharaka Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma, Swarna Bhsama, Lauha Bhasma, Swarnamakshika Bhasma

250mg

Triphalakwatha,Honey

37

Brihat Somnath Rasa

S.Parada, S.Gandhak, Abhraka Bhasma, Swarna Bhsama, Rajat Bhasma, Vanga Bhasma, Swarnamakshika Bhasma, Kharpara Bhasma

250mg

Honey

38

Salsaradi Leha

Lauha Bhasma, Tamra Bhasma,

250mg

Honey

39

Vanga Avaleha

Vanga Bhasma

500mg

Honey, old jaggery,S. Gandhak6,7,8,9.

 

Conclusion

Managing Diabetes from pharmacological aspect of new drugs , insulin pens, insulin pump, etc. help to restore life till death, but it has no surety that how long the drugs will respond and how to avoid the complications or how to treat the complications safely. However, our Ayurvedic medicines especially Rasausadhies with non-pharmacological therapy likediet, lifestyle, yoga, etc. are also highly effective in Madhumeha and are having no or very little complications. If complications may arise then they can be treating safely and successfully in comparison to modern science.

 

 

All the above articles / blog posts are not the original contribution from author, please consider a opinion of qualified doctor, if you considering this. If you need a advice please contact Dr. Anil Joy email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Thank You,

 

 

 

 

 

Useful Links

Medicinal plants of India ; Ayurveda

Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants/Herbs mainly using in Ayurveda with good quality pictures and information like therapeutic usage of Medicinal Plants, cultivation, morphology, habitat, flower characters, Chemical content, parts used, research works etc.

ayurvedic treatments