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Pharmaceutical Study of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa

Abstract : 
Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa is a preparation involving Shodhita Hingula, which when subjected to Dahana (liquefication) and Pachanasamskara (heating) with specified drugs like Vataksheera (Ficus bengalensis), Palanduswarasa (Allium sativum), Bhallataka (Semicarpus anacardium), Lavanga (Syzygcium aromaticum) and Grutha (cow ghee) is claimed to increase the therapeutic efficacy in Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis) when taken with Purana Guda (Old jaggery) as anupana. Organoleptic character variations such as change in colour from Red to Dark Brown were noticed along with changes in percentage of mercury (Hg) and sulphur (S) before and after the preparation (Hg from 86.6% to 62% and S from 12.83% to 12.28% respectively). The Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) reported the presence of mercury oxide (HgO) and mercury sulphide (HgS) in the ratio 60:40. It was noted that there was presence of selenium in lesser proportion which was not in elemental form. 

Key words : Samskara, Dahana, Pachana, Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa, Organoleptic characters, ESCA 

Introduction : 
Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa is a unique preparation which does not fall under chaturvidha rasayanas (Kharaliyarasayana, Pottalirasayana, Parpatirasayana and Kupipakwarasayana). It involves the pachanasamskara of Shodhita Hingula with Vatakseera and Palanduswaras, Dahana with ShuddhaBhallataka, and lastly pachana with Gogrutha. This pachita Hingula develops properties to cure Amavata. The samskaras help in Gunaantardhana of a dravya. Hingula is a compound of parada and gandhaka. Parada and Gandhaka are most renowned rasa dravyas in the field of Rasashastra as well as Ayurveda. Being main ingredients of this formulation, it can give miraculous results in Amavata. There are several preparations listed in Ayurvedic classics for Amavata which involve guggulu preparations and gold preparations. These ingredients are costly and list of ingredients is confusing. Compared to these, Sri Siddhadarada cost effective. Hence, it is considered for study.

Materials & Methods :

a.     For the study, raw materials like Grahya Hingula, Samskarartha Prayojya Ghatakas: Grahya Bhallataka5and Lavanga, Ghruta, and Palandu were obtained from the market and Vataksheera was collected from its natural habitat. All the raw materials were authenticated from experts in the subjects of Rasashastra & Dravyaguna. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed in Bangalore Drug Test House and other drug testing laboratories.

b.     Shodhita Hingula was made into cakes. Each cake was tied with cotton thread separately such that the entire cake was densely covered with the thread. This was done to ensure that Hingula is not exposed to the different media.

c.      Then Pachanasamskara-I: - All the Hingula cakes tied with cotton thread were placed in a moderate-sized deep frying pan. Vataksheera and Palanduswarasa were poured into the pan and the pan was placed over mruduvagni till all the liquid in the pan evaporated. The dry cakes (pachita Hingula) were collected and subjected to Dhahanasamskara.

d.     Dhahanasamskara: - Lavangayavakuta choorna was spread at the bottom of a pan and pachita Hingula was placed over it. A heap of shudhabhallataka10 was made over the Hingula cake in the form of a cone. The gaps were filled with lavanga choorna such that it formed a tight pack. Over this, an inverted funnel was placed such that the funnel wall covered the cone of Bhallataka completely. The funnel was surrounded with charcoal and the charcoal was ignited. When Bhallataka was completely burnt, the Hingula cake (dahita Hingula) was taken out cleaned and subjected to Pachanasamskara- II.

e.     Pachanasamskara- II: - The Hingula cake was placed in the centre of deep frying pan on mandagni. Grutha was poured gradually over the Hingula cake and allowed to evaporate. After evaporation of Grutha, the cake was collected and the cotton threads were untied. The cake was then powdered. This powdered form is ready for administration. Temperature during the procedure was 260oC - 280oC.

The Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa prepared by the above process was subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis.

The results are as given below :

1.     Observational

2.     Analytical

1. Observational Results 
Pharmaceutical process Preparation of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa : 

Table 01: Organoleptic features of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa

Sr. No.

Feature   

Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa

01

Colour

Dark brown

02

Smell

Faint

03

Touch

Fine



Table 02: Results of Hingula Shodhana

Ingredients 
In quantity

Bhavanadravya Ardrakaswasa in ml

Mardana in hours

Results 
in gm

Remarks 
Gain in gm

Hingula 500 gms.

130

8

505

5

130

8

512

7

130

8 ½

518

6

130

525

7

130

9

530

5

130

9

538

8

130

10

545

7


Table 03 :
 Effect on weight of Hingula :

Quantity of Hingula before shodhana 
(gm)

Quantity of Hingula after shodhana 
(gm)

500

545


Table 04 : Effect on weight of bhallatka:

Weight of Bhallataka before Shodhana
(gm)

Weight of Bhallataka after Shodhana
 (gm)

800

750


Table 05: Weight of Hingula before and after threading

Drug

Before Threading 
 (gm)

After Threading 
 (gm)

  Shuddha Hingula Cakes

100

105

110

115

110

115

110

115

115

120


Table 06 : Details of Pachanasamskara 

Drug

Pachanadravya

Quantity

Temperature/ Total no of hours

Total weight before

Total weight after

Shuddha Hingula Cake

Vataksheera

250 ml

80°C for 5 hours

 

570 gm

 

650 gm

 

Palanduswarasa

2 litres


Table 07 : Details of GhrutaPachana

Drug

Weight before Pachana 
(gm)

Weight after Pachana (gm)

Dahita Hingula

135

130



2. Analytical Results 

A) Qualitative Analytical Results11

a.     Loss on drying at 1100C: 
One gram of accurately weighed Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa was heated in an electric oven up to 1100 C and weighed again. The difference in weight was calculated and found to be 0.21%.

 

a.     Acid insoluble ash : 
The ash obtained (during loss on drying) was mixed with dilute HCl and filtered through Whatman no. 42 filter paper. The residue was washed with hot water till it was free from chloride. The residue was taken in a crucible, dried and ignited at a low temperature. The percentage of acid insoluble ash was calculated with reference to the moisture free drug and was found to be 0.42%.

 

a.     The fineness of particle test : 
It is possible to use the ordinary microscope for measuring the particle size in the range of 0.2 micrometers to about 100 micrometers. The initial standardization of micrometer was carried out by coinciding with the lines of both Oculo-micrometer (OM) and stage micrometer (SM). Then, the stage micrometer was removed. The fine powder of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa was sprinkled on a slide, covered with a cover slip, mounted slide on the mechanical stage and focused. The particles were measured along the arbitrarily chosen fixed lines covered by the particles using the Oculo- micrometer. The size of the particle was calculated using the standard value. In the same way, the particle fineness was measured for the powder of shodhita Hingula.


Results:

Table 08 :

The fineness of particles in shodhita Hingula and Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa



Sample

Atomic Mean Diameter (µm)

Mean Surface Volume Diameter (µm)

Shodhita Hingula

6.534

9.222

Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa

4.788

8.198








 

 

 

 

 

 

a.     Determination of pH: The pH value of the Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa was determined by a digital pH meter. As the sample was dry and solid in the form of capsules, 1% solution was prepared by dissolving 1gm sample in 100ml water. The pH of the 1% solution was found to be 6.66.

b.     Determination of total ash: About 2gm of ground drug (Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa) was taken in a previously traced, ignited and weighed silica dish. The drug was scattered in a fine even layer on the bottom of the dish. The drug was incinerated by gradually increasing the heat, not exceeding dull red heat (4500C) until the sample was free from carbon. The residue was cooled and weighed. The percentage of ash with reference to the air-dried drug was found to be 29.1%.

c.      Estimation of fat content: About 2 g of previously dried (during loss on drying) Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa was weighed and placed in a thimble made of coarse filter paper and knotted with a thread. The sample was extracted with 25ml anhydrous alcohol, free ether or petroleum ether in a soxhlet extraction apparatus. Extraction period may vary from 4 hours at condensation rate of 5-6 drops/sec to 16 hours at 2-3 drops /sec. The solvent was then evaporated and the extract was dried to a constant weight at 1100C. The fat content percentage was calculated and found to be 7%.

Table 09: Summary of qualitative analysis of prepared Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa

Sr. No.

Parameters tested

Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa

01

pH

6.66

02

Fineness of particle

8.198

03

Loss on drying 110 0

0.21%

04

Total ash

29.1%

05

Acid insoluble ash

0.42%

06

Flow rate

15%

07

Fat content

7%


B) Quantitative Analytical Results 


Table 10 : Quantitative analysis of sulphur and mercury by Atomic absorption spectroscopy and Gravimetric method.12

Sr. No.

Parameter used

Shodhita Hingula

Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa

01

Sulphur

12.83%

12.28%

02

Mercury

86.10%

64.28%


ESCA Report : Mercury was present in oxide and sulphide forms. No elemental Mercury was present. The ratio of mercury oxide to mercury sulphide was found to be 60:40. The Selenium presence is increased markedly after the samskaras. 

Discussion :

a.     Shodhana was carried for Hingula with 7 bhavanas of ardrakaswarasa. One of the advantages of bhavana is to reduce the sample into smaller or finer particles. Finer particles are easier for absorption in GI track. After bhavana, weight of the Hingula was increased from 500gm (before shodhana) to 545gm (after shodhana). As ardrakaswarasa contains fibrous matter and starch, it may cause increase in the weight of Hingula.

b.     The colour of Hingula, as noted, changed with the change in temperature and nature of preparation. After the bhallatakashodhana procedure, Hingula lost its weight from 800 gm (before shodhana) to 750 gm (after shodhana). The pericarp of the bhallataka contains corrosive juices. To minimize its ill effects, its shodhana with gomutra is mentioned. Gomutra contains certain amount of Ammonia which is a good solvent. It brings out the excess of oils from the pericarp. This accounts for the loss of weight of bhallataka after shodhana.

c.      The collection of Vataksheera was done in Hemantha ruthu, that is, in the months of October to December. This period is the time for sprouting of off-shoots. When these off-shoots are broken, they yield latex. Cotton is known to tolerate heat for longer hours; hence this was used to act as a barrier between Hingula and the media used for samskara.

d.     Pachana with Vataksheera and PalanduSwarasa- 800C, Pachana with Grutha- 2600 C- 2800C. In the classics, use of funnel for dahana procedure is not mentioned. However, if Dahana is done directly, the Hg from cinnabar will escape and there will be great amount of weight loss in the Hingula cake. To minimize this loss, an alternate method was planned which involved covering the bhalltaka heap with an inverted funnel as a barrier and the sides was filled with charcoals and ignited. This was most appropriate arrangement as after dahana the Bhallataka and lavangachoorna was charred and the Hingula also retained its weight.

e.     The vaporization point of ghruta is very high. At the temperature of 2600C-2800C it starts evaporating. Hingula should be in contact with ghruta at the temperature till all the ghruta evaporates. At the end of the procedure, thick fibre-like structures remained as the un-evaporated mass. This would be due to the formation of the polymer which retained rubbery consistency.

f.       The ESCA report suggests that the Selenium presence is increased markedly after the samskaras. Selenium is considered as antioxidant. Prepared Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa shows Hg 62% and S 12.28%. The ESCA reported the presence of HgO and HgS in the ratio of 60:40.

Conclusion : 
The Hingulashodhana was done using Ardrakaswarasa Bhavana which again aims at increasing its Amapachana property. For dahana procedure, using the inverted funnel was most convincing as this procedure helps to cut down the loss of Hg to greater extent. The size of the particle of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa is significantly less than that of ShodhitaHingula . This shows that the samskara had a role in making it fine and better for absorption. There is no direct reference for the use of ShodhitaHingula internally, but by this dahana and pachanasamskaras it was made feasible for sole administration. All the analytical results of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa are well within the safety limits as mentioned in standard Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India.

 

 

All the above articles / blog posts are not the original contribution from author, please consider a opinion of qualified doctor, if you considering this. If you need a advice please contact Dr. Anil Joy email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

 

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