About Ayurveda




Why Ayurveda Originated ?

Eight Branches In Ayurveda

Basic Principles of Ayurveda


Pancha Maha-bootha concept

Ayurvedic Approach to Health and Wellness

About Ayurveda Treatments (Upakrama)


Ayurvedic Text Books- Tantra

Types Of Medicine In Ayurveda


                   The word Ayurveda is a Sanskrit word (आयुर्वेद) that evolves from combination of two words, "Ayush" (आयुस्) meaning life and "veda" (वेदः) meaning knowledge. Ayurveda means "Knowledge about Life" Ayurveda is a 3000 year old science that originated in India. Present region of North Indian, Pakistan, Nepal, Barma, Tibet and East-Northern places of Bangladesh. The components and concept of Ayurveda is rooted in Vedas. Ayurveda considered as the one of the Upveda of ‘Adharva veda’.


                           Ayurveda is an ancient medical science which was developed in India thousands of years ago. Believed to have been passed on to humans from the Gods themselves.God ‘Dhwanathiri’ considered as the god who gives ayurveda to mankind for his health. In ayurveda literature it says that ayurveda not created, it sates ‘BRAMHA SMRITHWA AYURVEDA ‘. ie God Brahma recollected or compiled ayurveda science. It is believed that early a samhita named ‘Bramha Samhita’ was present. All other samhita’s used content Bramha samhita to write new samhita for easy understanding and usage.



         Ayurvedic Medicine is the world's oldest comprehensive health care system and is indigenous to India where it is widely practiced. "This ancient art of healing asserts that the science, philosophy and spirituality are all necessary aspects of healthy living." Thus Ayurveda is not only a comprehensive medical system but also a way of living and the very concept of "mind, body and spirit" originates from Ayurveda.

              Ayurveda originated in vedic time, ancient universities like was ‘Nalantha’ and ‘Takshashila’ was the main hub off education in ‘Hindustan’. They promoted ayurveda. Due to ‘Buddhism’ and ‘Jainism’  ayurveda spred all over the world, ‘Buddhist’  saints spread the ayurveda to South India, Srilanka, Indonesia etc. But I want to mention one thing that due to principle in ‘Ahimsa’ in ‘Buddhism’, surgical information in the Ayurveda almost lost they give more impotents to herbal and treatment procedure. Still we can see the influence of Buddhism in ayurveda classical text book.

 Why Ayurveda Originated ?

                In vedic time people are preferred ‘yaga’ or ‘Homa’ for a purpose like to get blessing from god, nature etc. To get cure from a disease, ‘Yaga’ is prescribed. Sir, you can simply guess what will be the cost  for a ‘yaga’ like procedure, naturally that will not affordable by people, many families became poor due to this. Also more important thing is there, in ancient time ‘Chatur Varnya’ based community life style is adapted. All are not rich to involve in Yaga and all are not allowed. This situation lead a necessary situation to design a treatment protocol like ayurveda which is effective also cost effective system, even ordinary people can use.

             Our ‘Acharya’ are considered as ‘Apta’, which simply means they free from all the negative energy from the earth, no intention to cheat others, not want to get any profit from anyone. They saw all the people as one, not based on community system. I believe that due to this Ayurveda is still exists, due to their kindness and truthfulness in heart, not me and any of other ayurveda doctors.

 Eight Branches In Ayurveda

   The Branches in Ayurveda are derived from classical Sanskrit literature, in which Ayurveda was called "the science of eight branches" (Sanskritaṣṭāṅga अष्टांग). The components are:

 1.Kayachikitsa (general medicine): "cure of diseases affecting the body".

 2.Kaumāra-bhṛtya and Bala Roga: deals with the treatment of children.

 3.Shalya tantra deals with surgical techniques.

 4.Śālākya-tantra - deals with diseases of the teeth, eye, nose, ear etc.

 5.Bhuta-vidya deals with the causes, which are not directly visible and not directly  explained by tridosha ,pertaining to micro-organisms or spirits.

 6.Agada-tantra deals with antidotes to poison.

 7.Rasayana-tantra (Geriatrics)/(Anti Agings) : deals with rejuvenation.

 8.Vajikarana tantra (aphrodisiacs) deals with healthy and desired progeny.


 Basic Principles of Ayurveda


Tridosha, Pancha Maha-bootha , Saptha dathu , Agni, concept of  Srothos




·         Vata pertains to air and ether elements. This energy is generally seen as the force, which directs nerve impulses, circulation, respiration, and elimination.

·         Kapha pertains to water and earth elements. Kapha is responsible for growth and protection. The mucousal lining of the stomach, and the cerebral-spinal fluid that protects the brain and spinal column are examples of kapha.

·         Pitta pertains to fire and water elements. This dosha governs metabolism, e.g., the transformation of foods into nutrients. Pitta is also responsible for metabolism in the organ and tissue systems.


Tridosha - Vata, Pitta and kapha


vāyu: pittaṃ kaphaśceti trayo doṣā: samāsata: || vikṛtā’vikṛtā dehaṃ ghnanti te varttayanti ca | (A.H)

Vayu – Vata, Pitta and kapha are the three Doshas of the body. Perfect balance of three Doshas

leads to health, imbalance in Tridosha leads to diseases.


te vyāpino’pi hṛnnābhyoradhomadhyordhva saṃśrayā: ||

vayo’horātribhuktānāṃ te’ntamadhyādigā: kramāt | (A.H.)


The Tridosha are present all over the body, but their presence is especially seen in particular

parts. If you divide the body into three parts, the top part upto chest is dominated by Kapha

Dosha, between chest and umbilicus is dominated by Pitta, below umbilicus part is dominated by


Similarly, in a person’s life, day and in night (separately), the first part is dominated by Kapha,

second part is dominated by Pitta and third part is dominated by Vata. While eating and during


digestion, the first, second and third part are dominated by Kapha, Pitta and Vata respectively.


Qualities of Vata

tatra rūkṣo laghu: śīta: khara: sūkṣmaścalo’nila: || (A.H.)

Rooksha – dryness, Laghu – Lightness, Sheeta – coldness, Khara – roughness, Sookshma –

minuteness, Chala – movement These are the qualities of Vata.


Qualities of Pitta

pittaṃ sasneha tīkṣṇoṣṇaṃ laghu visraṃ saraṃ dravam |(A.H.)


Sasneha – slightly oily, unctuous, Teekshna – piercing, entering into deep tissues, Ushna –

hotness, Laghu – lightness, Visram – bad smell, sara – having fluidity, movement, drava –

liquidity are the qualities of Pitta.


Qualities of Kapha


snigdha: śīto gururmanda: ślakṣṇo mṛtsna: sthira: kapha: || (A.H)

Snigdhna – oily, unctuous, Sheeta – cold, Guru – heavy, Manda – mild, viscous, shlakshna –

smooth, clear, Mrutsna – slimy, jely, sthira – stability, immobility are the qualities of Kapha.


The increase, decrease of individual Doshas, or imbalance of couple of these Doshas is called as

Samsarga. And imbalance of all the three Doshas together is called as Sannipata.




Pancha Maha-bootha concept

 Ayurveda is based on the premise that the universe is made up of five elements:


1.Pradvi – earth

2.Aap – water

3.Tejus – Fire

4.Vayu – Air

5.Akash – Space  


            These elements are represented in humans by three "doshas", or energies: Vata, Pitta and Kapha. When any of the doshas accumulate in the body beyond the desirable limit, the body loses its balance. Every individual has a distinct balance, and our health and well-being depend on getting a right balance of the three doshas ("tridoshas"). Ayurveda suggests specific lifestyle and nutritional guidelines to help individuals reduce the excess dosha.

Ayurvedic Approach to Health and Wellness

To maintain the health of a healthy person  (swastha vritha) and cure the disease of a diseased.

Preventive Medicine – Creates and maintains health and longevity of an individual by maintaining balance of a person's prakturi (or constitution) by creating daily and periodic regimens. These health routines focus on diet and exercise, herbals, massage, meditation, and social behavior and positive relationships.

Curative Medicine – Treatments to cure the disease by one or combination of the following approaches:

     · Internal measures, including shodhana (detoxification) and shamana (methods used to improve quality of life via palliative care).

     · External measures, including snehana (oil treatments), svedana (steam therapy using herbal steam), and use of herbal pastes.

     · Surgical methods, including removal of tissues, organs, and harmful growths.

     · Mental and spiritual therapies or daivya chikitsa.

     · Herbal therapy, including astute pharmacology.

 About Ayurveda Treatments (Upakrama)

Two types of  Treatments (Upakrama)


2. Brimhna

Langhana Therapy further divided in two



Saman therapy further divided in to




4. Vyayama

5. Thritt




 Sothana Therapy (Pancha Karma ) Divided in to –

According to susrutha

1.Vaman (Therapeutic vomiting or emesis)

2.Virechan (Purgation)

3.Basti (Enema using medicine)

4.Nasya ( Application of medicine in Nose)

5.Rakta moksha (Bloodletting or detoxification of the blood)


According To Charaka


1.Vaman (Therapeutic vomiting or emesis)

2.Virechan (Purgation)

3.Nasya ( Application of medicine in Nose)

4.Matra Vasthi (Enema Using tail / Gritam)

5.Kashaya Vasthi (Enema using Kashaya / decotion)

More about Pancha Karma



            Ayurveda recognizes that all living and non-living things are composed of panchamahabhut or five basic elements of the entire creation. One branch of Indian philosophy—Sankhya, states that there are 24 elements in all, of which five are the foundation of the gross world: earth, water, fire, air and ether. According to ayurveda these five elements in different combinations constitute the three body types/doshas—vata (air and space), pitta (fire) and kapha (earth and water). These two theories are the guiding factors of ayurveda as a therapeutic science.

Ayurveda advises undergoing panchakarma at the seasonal changes to both keep the metabolism strong and keep toxins from accumulating in the body as well as the mind. The process finds the way to the root cause of the problem and corrects the essential balance of mind, body, and emotions. It is considered extremely effective to go through the process of panchakarma prior to any rejuvenation treatment (rasayana/herbal medicines), for it cleanses the body, improves the digestion, the metabolic processes of the body and cleanse the thought process as well.
Basically, panchakarma is meant to make an individual most receptive to the curative process of ayurveda by removing accumulated waste in body and mind.

Vamana (Emesis)

It is a process of therapeutic vomiting (induced), which helps eliminate the toxic or waste matters from the stomach and thoracic cavity. Kapha dominant diseases like severe skin diseases (psoriasis, urticaria); bronchial asthma, mental disorders etc. are selected for this treatment procedure. This process is not suggested for expecting mothers. Normally eight bouts of emesis are followed. The vomiting is stopped when yellow coloration is seen. Then, dhoomapana—inhalation of medicated fumes—is done through a special process. Finally, certain rules have to be followed called paschatkarma that basically implies strict diet regimen.

The entire treatment takes 15 days, and requires good attention as well as skilled assistance.

Virechana (Purgation)

This eliminates the toxic or waste matters from the intestine. It also cures pitta or pitta-dominated diseases. Poorvakarma or initial process of cleansing like vamana is suggested here. About 20 purges may be seen in this process depending on the patient's health.
A mild form of virechana without the poorvakarma, is an integral part of ayurvedic therapy. It is also used for prevention of diseases.

Basti (Enema using medicine)

The process of vasti or therapeutic enema is resorted to eliminate toxins from colon, and strengthens the tissues. Two kinds of vastis are followed in ayurveda. Snehavasti is the vasti where medicated oils are used. This is not advised in patients suffering from diabetes, anemia, diarrhea, and obesity. Poorvakarma is required here.For kashaya vasti, honey, rock salt, sneham (oils), paste of medicines are required and mixed one by one in the above order. This concoction is taken in an empty stomach. After the process the patient is allowed to take a bath.

Diseases like hemiplegia, and disease due to vata are treated by this process. Medicines are selected as per disease and stage.

Nasya (Nasal Application of Herbal Medicines)

Nasya is instillation of medicine through nose. It is an important procedure of ayurveda for the treatment of sirorogas or diseases affecting head area. Nasya helps cleanse the head and sinuses. The process is contraindicated in various psychological diseases, asthma and cough.
Here, the patient is to inhale lightly warmed oil. Warmed oil is massaged in the patient's neck, shoulder, palm, face and sole before and after the process of nasya. Different timings are indicated for different dosha types. Morning time is prescribed for kapha diseases, noon in pitta diseases and evening in vata diseases.

Raktamoksha (Blood-Letting)

Susruta gave stress to Raktamoksha (blood-letting) as one of the panchakarma, taking two of the vastis as a single karma (here, procedure). The process of letting out the vitiated blood is termed raktamoksha. In this procedure localized impurity or poison from the blood is removed through various methods. Often leech is used to suck out the impure blood from the affected area. Blood-letting is also done to eliminate toxins from the blood stream causing various chronic skin disorders like urticaria, eczema, scabies and leucoderma etc. The method was also effectively used to cure enlarged liver and spleen.

            The sodhana treatment / chikitsa known as pancha karma therapy. Most of the Ayurveda therapy centre give imports only for pancha karma therapy, But according to ayurveda sodhana and samana both have equal important.  So I  never say pancha karma is a superior treatment. I think most of time that is not good, because according to literature in ayurveda so many people and disease condition not recommend for pancha treatments. Unfortunately treatment centers want to promote it because it is more profitable business. For preparing a person for pancha karma, a lot of other procedure are need to be do. Like  application of oil in different ways like massage , Dhara etc. You must remembered that our Acharyas I mentioned who is considered as ‘Apta’ not prescribed any oil massage therapy. I always feel bad thiking about that.  One of the intentions to write this article that now a day’s most of people thought that it is only an ‘Oil Massage’ therapy not a science.

Major Ayurvedic Text Books- Tantra (Brhattrayi)

Charak Samhita

Charak Samhita, which dates back to approximately 800 BC, is a major compendium of Ayurvedic medical theory and practice that Charaka, an internist at the University of Taxila, compiled in Sanskrit. Presented as poetry, Samhita contains more than 8,400 verses in its 120 chapters.

Actual content in the Charaka samhita wrote by Acharya Agnivesha. But Acharya Charaka modified it. Some missing chapters are added by Acharya ‘ Dridabala’.

Sushruta Samhita by Sushruta 

This surgical text, which dates back to approximately 700 BC, contains seminal content such as the Ayurvedic definition of health, information on blood, and the description of five sub-doshas of Pitta and the marma points. This volume also includes pioneering techniques in skin grafting and reconstructive surgery.

Ashtanga Sangraha and Ashtanga Hridaya by Vagbhata

Ashtanga Sangraha and Ashtanga Hridayam, dating back to approximately 400 BC, were written by an Ayurvedic physician from the Sindh region of India. The Sangraha is primarily written in prose, while The Hridayam is presented as poetry. These texts define the five subdoshas of Kapha and emphasize the material value of life. The Hridaya is still highly regarded as a primary Ayurvedic medical text book.


Minor Ayurvedic Classics (Lghutrayi)

Sarangadhar Samhita by Sharngadhara 

This text was written in the 13th century AD, and is valued for its explanation of the Ayurvedic concept of materia medica, as well as for its pharmacological formulations. It is also considered the foremost text on pulse diagnosis.

Bhav Prakash Nighantu by Bhavamisra

This 16th century text contains approximately 10,278 verses of varying meters and focuses on herbal descriptions, food, the therapeutic use of trace metals, and rejuvenation therapies. Information on sexually transmitted diseases, particularly syphilis, is also included.


Madhava Nidan by Madhava Kara

This text was written between 700 AD and 1100 AD, and is valued for its precise classification of diseases and disease etiology, particularly in the fields of pediatrics and toxicology. Madhava Nidan is considered the Bible for Ayurvedic clinical diagnosis.

Types Of Medicine In Ayurveda

According to origin

1.  Herbal Medicine – Medicine prepared using medicinal Plants

2.  Mineral Medicine– Medicine prepared using heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, sulphur, siver,gold etc.

3.  Herbo-mineral combined medicine

According to Preparation

1.  Kashaya

2.  Arishta

3.  Asava

4.  Churna

5.  Lehya

6.  Gritha

7.  Gulika

8.  Arka

9.  Basma / kshara

10.            Malahara – Lepana