Darshana and Anumana
Darshana in Ayurveda means complete inspection of the body. It is a way of assessing the nature of the disease through different tests and examination. It is derived from the first triad described in Trividh Pariksha for the assessment of diseases. It is actually the first method of clinical assessment. A careful inquiry and thorough physical examination of the patient concerning his constitution and illness are the prime factors necessary to elicit all the data of the case. The correct interpretation of these facts and systematic reasoning based on them, are essential to arrive at the accurate diagnosis and prognosis and to decide the right line of treatment. Methodical investigation and logical decision are the foundation of this science of medicine.
Factors For Inspection
In order to determine the kind of ailment patient is suffering from and to determine its intensity and seriousness, a very detailed diagnosis of the disease is necessary. The doctor then on the basis of the discrepancies from normal body conditions determines the problems in the body of the patients. He figures out two to three possibilities and cross checks them in order to test his hypothesis. While inspection of the body he looks out for those factors which can give him a clue about the disease. In this method, the person is totally assessed by the physician and the following things are noted:
Symptoms of the disease
Strength and Stamina of the body
Color of the skin
Shape of the body.
Dryness or excessive oiliness of skin and hair.
Eyes - color, features etc.
Nails-its brittleness and color
There are certain rules and regulations regarding the assessment of disease in Ayurveda. It is said that until the examinations are done in a correct atmosphere, the result derived can’t be true. That is why factors like light, hygiene and state of the patient are various important factors and should be in an ideal state during the examination. It is believed that slightest of discrepancy in the assessment can lead to a completely wrong treatment. Thus, while examination of the patient the factors mentioned below must be kept in concern-
Assessment should be done as far as possible in sunlight because the inference drawn in artificial light can be wrong.
The place should be clean and calm.
The patient should be relaxed and at ease.
Examination of the patient should be the only concern of the physician.
Assessment should be done from head to toe.
The microscopic pathological investigations done now-a-days can also be included under inspection.
Certain points that are instructed by the physician prior to the examination like being ‘empty stomach’ or ‘after having first meal’ should also be religiously followed.
Ayurveda is a very vast medical science. It has several prescribed to various complex ailments that do not find solution in any other modern medical sciences. According to Ayurveda the fundamental cause of diseases is imbalance of the three doshas - Vata, Pitta and kapha. The state of balance or equilibrium between these three doshas in the body is called health and the state of imbalance or disequilibrium is disease. There is a wide range of methods in Ayurveda to assess diseases based on their constitution and then prescribe the suitable treatment. The threefold examination, or trividh pariksha as it is called, consists of investigation, which is carried out by the three methods. Read on to explore more about the stages of ailment investigation in Ayurveda.
Two Stages Preceding Anumana
It is the stage in which the doctor questions the patient about his problems, ailments and symptoms. He also asks about the period since the patient is suffering from the aliment. He enquires about his daily routine, meal he intakes, his physical activities and several other question that can help the doctor understand the state of the patient and the root causes behind it.
It is the direct objective examination of the patient by direct methods like checking the pulse, measuring the intensity of breathing, size and state of stomach, any outer scars or wounds etc. This is the stage where physical evidences are collected in order to support the patient statements or checking out details beyond the patient’s explanation.
The third and the most important stage of the examination is Anumana. It is basically the objective examination of the patient by indirect or inferential methods. The goal or purpose of investigation is to obtain a dear conception of the status of one's bodily strength including resistance (bala pramana), his accurate pathological condition (dosha pramana) and one’slife term (ayu pramana).
Methods of Anumana
Anumana is the anticipation of living beings i.e. the situation where the perceived knowledge is beyond the judgement of our senses we anticipate. Two important things are considered Lingi (matter) and Linga (property). By the means of Linga (property), the lingi is identified. Linga and Lingi has Samya relation (Intimate relation). The medical practitioner uses various indirect factors to diagnose the disease like for example:
Strength is determined by capacity for exercise.
Sense organs by their clarity of perception.
Mind by the power of concentration.
Understanding by the purposeful nature of action.
Passion by the strength of attachment.
Infatuation by the lack of understanding.
Anger from the actions of violence.
Grief by despondency.
Joy by exhilaration.
Pleasure from the sense of satisfaction.