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Bhaishajya Kalpana and Ayurveda Padartha Vidyan
In this concept the word Bhaishajya means medicine and kalpana means forms hence the branch which deals with the various forms of medicine such as syrups, juice, tablet, powder etc. is named as Bhaisajya Kalpana.
Bhaisjya Kalpana importance
It increases the potency of medicine by sanskar i.e. vishesh gunantardhana (adding or generating special property)
It makes the medicine durable
It makes the medicine palatable.
It removes the toxic effect of medicine by shodhana karm.
As per the severity of the disease it helps the adjustment of dosha
It makes the medicine as per need of patient and disease.
Panchavidha Kashaya Kalpana
Under Pancha vidha Kashaya Kalpana branch accoridng to ayurveda five basic forms of medicine have been described. The word Kashaya denotes two meaning:
Distortion of the original shape of dravya during different medical preparations
It is used to remove disease
Thereby in ayurveda dainty medicinal preparations are considered as Kashaya Kalpana.
Yoni (sources) of Kashaya Kalpana
The five rasas (tastes) are the five yoni (source) of kashaya kalpana i.e. Madhur, Amla, Katu, Tikta, Kashaya with the exception of Lavana Rasa (salt taste) as its swarasa (juice) etc cannot be extracted from it. There are five Kashaya Kalpana that are more efficient in potency than the other ones:
Swaras Kashaya Kalpana (juice)
Kalka Kashaya Kalpana (jelly like)
Kwatha Kashaya Kalpana (decoction)
Shita Kashaya Kalpana (cold infusion)
Phanta Kashaya Kalpana (infusion)
Swarasa is the juice of it self and means the juice of the dravya hence is said to be its swarasa.
Crush the dravya properly and filter juice with the help of clean cotton cloth.
When the plants give less quantity of swarasa by these methods then its swarasa (juice) is extracted or prepared by putapaka method, which is as follows:
In this process dravya is collected and its bunch is formed that is covered by wet wheat dove. A layer of clay is formed over it and this thing is kept in the fire. After it becomes red the shell or muda and wheat flour is removed and swarasa (juice) is extracted either by crushing or filtering.
If the case is of powdered dravya then it is thoroughly mixed with water and then filtered to get juice. In this process the proportion of water to be added is double from that of powder. Mixed preparation is kept for 24hrs before getting filtered. Dosage - General dose of swarasa is 2 tola (20gm approx).
It is the crushed paste form of dravya.
· Crush the dravya properly to make its paste. Dry powder or dry things are mixed with water and then crushed to paste or Kalka Dosage i.e. 1 tola (10gms approx)
When dravya are boiled in water and filtered.
Crush the dravya thoroughly and mix it in appropriate water as per requirement and then boiled in slow flame till reduce to half or one fourth and then filter properly.
The quantity of water used is determined by the following rules
Four times more must be the water than the medicine for mridu (soft) dravya
Eight times more must be the water than the medicine for madhya dravya
Sixteen times more must be the water than the medicine for Kathina (hard) dravya
According the quantity of medicine
If the medicine is less than four tola (40gms approx) then add to 16 times the water.
If the quantity of medicine is 5 to 16 tola (50 to 160gms approx) then add eight times water.
If the quantity of medicine is above 16 tola (160gms approx) then add to 4 times water. Dosage - 4 tola (40gms approx)
In this process hot water is added to the medicine and then it is kept outside for 12 hours at night. The whole process is called Shita Kalpana.
To the powdered form of medicine six times water is added. The choice of hot and cold water is up to the user. The mixer is now kept for 12hrs at night in open place. In the morning medicine is ready for use.
Dosage - 4 tola (40gms approx.)
This process involves the mixing of medicine in boiled water, then covering it and keeping it to cool.
Boil 16 tola (160gms approx) water, then add four tola (40gms approx) powder form (not fine) of medicine in it. Keep the container for cooling and use it in lukewarm (koshna) condition.
Dosage: 4 tola to 8 tola (40gms to 80gms approx)
Ayurveda Padartha Vidyan
Ayurveda Padartha Vidyan not just relates to the natural, life of knowledge but also has a medical aspect. This aspect explains the knowledge of the criteria and conditions in which the padarth can be used as medicines and what are the various factors that need to be kept in mind while judging the medicinal value of the padarth or any substance.
An illustrating example for this is the mitigation of vata dosha if the substance is Guru in Guna and Madhura (sweet) in Rasa. Here Guru Guna and Madhura Rasa are the determining factors useful for curing Vataj Roga (disease related to Vata Dosha). The criteria on the basis of which the medicinal value of the substance can be considered are:
The word "dru" is the root word that constitutes dravya. Dravya is anything, everything that divides, combines and flows through a set of changes in due course of time. In all the things that surround us these characteristics exists and hence everything fall under this category.
Guna and karma have their dwelling in dravya. It is the essential factor (samvayi karana) of other karya dravya and the survival of guna and karma is possible only if dravya exists.
Classification of dravya
Categorically dravya can be divided in two divisions:
The dravya that is responsible for the creation and cannot be fragmented further or destroyed is called karna dravya. It consists of nine dravyas.
It owes its origin to karan dravya as it is instituted by the appropriate combination of karan dravya. This type of dravya is destructible and has a short span to function. After it is destroyed, karya dravya merges into its karan dravya.
The factor / thing by which people get attracted towards the dravya (substance) is known as guna (property).
Unlike the residents of dravya (substance) that are responsible for kriya (activities), guna (property) is the intimate yet inactive resident of dravya and is not responsible for kriya (activities) but is responsible for attracting people towards dravya and hence is different from karma and other residents.
Number of Guna
In ayurveda guna (properties) are forty one in number and are classified as follows:
Sartha Indriya Guna:
Being five in number these are the guna of senses.
Also known as "Sharirik" guna, they are twenty in number.
These gunas are felt only in living things and are the six gunas of Atma.
Samanya Guna (General property):
Total ten in number these gunas are samanya.