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Tantra Yukti: Tools For Composing And Understanding Treatises
Ayurveda has dealt with the points to be considered to assemble or create a study material or encyclopedia or treatise in a standard way under the topic Tantra Yukti.
Tantra – Tantra means Shastra, science or treatise or subject being dealt with or the content of the context (topic) being written in the form of a book or treatise.
Yukti – Yukti means Yojana or assembling, arrangement or compiling
Tantra Yukti – Thus Tantra Yukti means ‘Skillfully assembling the topic or topics of a subject or of a science in a methodical way’.
त्रायते शरीरं अनेन इति तन्त्रं शास्त्रं चिकित्सा च, तस्य युक्तयो योजनाः तन्त्रयुक्तयः।(डल्हण)
That which protects the body is called Tantra. Shaastra or Chikitsa (treatment) are its synonyms. Proper arrangement of Tantra is called Tantra Yukti.
Number of Tantra Yuktis –
Charaka and Sushruta have explained Tantra Yuktis in detail with slight differences in their presentations.
32 Tantra Yuktis according to Sushruta
- Adhikarana, Yoga, Padaartha, Hetwartha
- Uddesha, Nirdesha, Upadesha, Apadesha
- Pradesha, Atidesha, Apavarga, Vaakyashesha
- Arthaapatti, Viparyaya, Prasanga, Ekanta
- Anekanta, Poorvapaksha, Nirnaya, Anumata
- Vidhaana, Anaagatavekshana, Atikraantaavekshana
- Samshaya, Vyaakhyaana, Swasamjgnaa, Nirvachana
- Nidarshana, Niyoga, Vikalpa, Samuchchaya, Oohya
36 Tantra Yuktis according to Charaka –
The above 32 +
Pratyutsara, Uddhara, Prayojana, Sambhava
Charaka has mentioned Prayojana, Pratyutsaara, Uddhaara and Sambhava in excess but has not mentioned Apavarga mentioned by Sushruta. Sushruta’s Anekanta is mentioned as Naikanta in Charaka. Charaka has used the term Sanniyoga instead of Niyoga mentioned by Sushruta. Charaka has named Sushruta’s Atikraantaavekshana as Ateetaavekshana.
36 Tantra Yuktis according to Charaka
- Adhikarana, Yoga, Hetwartha, Padaartha
- Pradesha, Uddesha, Nirdesha, Vaakyashesha
- Prayojana, Upadesha, Apadesha, Atidesha
- Arthaapatti, Nirnaya, Prasanga, Ekaanta
- Naikaanta, Apavarga, Viparyaya, Poorvapaksha
- Vidhaana, Anumata, Vyaakhyaana, Samshaya
- Ateetaavekshana, Anaagataavekshana, Swasamjgnaa, Oohyaa
- Samuchchaya, Nidarshana, Nirvachana, Sanniyoga
- Vikalpana, Pratytsaara, Uddhaara, Sambhava
Apart from these Tantra Yuktis, Bhattaara Harichandra, the commentator of Charaka has mentioned 4 extra Tantra Yuktis.
- Pariprashna (can be included under Uddeshya)
- Vyaakarana (can be included under Vyaakhyaana)
- Vyutkraantaabhidhaana (can be included under Nirdesha)
Purpose and use of Tantra Yukti
वाक्य योजनं अर्थ योजनः च।(सु.उ.६५/३)
The main purpose or utility of Tantra Yukti is bi-fold –
Vakya Yojana – Proper editing, assembling and arrangement of sentence
Artha Yojana – Proper assembling or arrangement of meaning (of a sentence)
Other uses of Tantra Yukti –
असद् वादादि प्रयुक्तानां वाक्यानां प्रतिषेधनम्।
स्व वाक्य सिद्धिः अपि च क्रियते तन्त्रयुक्तितः॥
व्यक्ता न उक्ताः च ये हि अर्था लीना ये च अपि अनिर्मलाः।
लेश उक्ता ये च केचित् स्युः तेषां च अपि प्रसाधनम्॥
यथा अम्बु जवनस्य अर्कः प्रदीपो वेश्मनो यथा।
प्रबोधस्य प्रकाशार्थाः तथा तन्त्रस्य युक्तयः॥(सु.उ.६५/४)
Asad vaadi prayukta vaakya pratishedha – contradicting or opposing the views or statements (sentences, concepts) made by the opponents, false-speaking opponents to be precise
Swa vaakya siddhi – Establishing or proving ones theory or statement or view
Vyaktaa na uktaa cha ye hi arthaa leenaa ye cha api anirmalaaha lesha uktaa ye cha kechit syuhu teshaam cha api prasaadhanam –
Tantra Yukti makes clear the meaning of the –
- Avyakta – Unsaid terms and sentences
- Anukta – Unseen (unheard) words or sentences
- Leena artha – Words or sentences having latent and unclear meaning
- Anirmala artha – words or sentences whose meaning is weirdly or haphazardly given
- Lesha ukta – The words whose meaning has been partially said
Simile – Just as the Sun illuminates the garden of lotuses and lamp illuminates the house, the Tantra Yuktis illuminate and make clear the ‘materials of learning’, ‘science, subject or treatises’.
एकस्मिन् अपि यस्येह शास्त्रे लब्ध आस्पदा मतिः।
स शास्त्रम् अन्यद् अपि आशु युक्तिज्ञत्वात् प्रबुध्यते॥
अधीयानो अपि शास्त्राणि तन्त्रयुक्त्या विना भिषक्।
न अधिगच्छति शास्त्रार्थान् अर्थान् भाग्य क्षये यथा॥(छ.सि.१२/४७-४८)
The buddhi or intellect of an individual is a complex and well organized mechanism. When the buddhi properly understands a shaastra (science or treatise or subject), it also understands other shastras on the basis of yukti (skill and wisdom related to learning and understanding a shaastra which is saved in it as a strong memory).
Thus reading a shaastra and understanding a shaastra make a hell and heaven difference. For proper understanding of a shaastra one needs to have a comprehensive knowledge of Tantra Yuktis.
Charaka tells that ‘One who reads or tries to learn the Shastra will never obtain the true meaning of the shaastra unless he is well equipped with a comprehensive knowledge of Tantra Yuktis. Just as a man never finds way of earning money in the presence of bad luck or ill-fate, the man never finds ways of knowing the true meaning of the shaastras in the absence of the knowledge of Tantra Yukti’.
Bottom line – ‘The knowledge of Tantra Yukti is mandatory for a comprehensive understanding of Shastra’
Just before Finishing –
Ayurveda was the first ever science to have explained about the chronological and effective documentation of learning or study materials. This article is to present to our readers the ancient knowledge of Tantra Yukti as explained in Ayurvedic texts.