Ayurveda Treatment Methods

A Guide Line To Ayurveda Treatments & Principles

Marma Classification Based On Effect Of Injury

 


Depending on the injury imparted over the marma and its consequential effect, the Marmas are classified into 5 types. They are:

Sadya Pranahara Marma – 19
Kalantara Pranahara Marma – 33
Vishalyaghna Marma – 3
Vaikalyakara Marma – 44
Rujakara Marma – 8

Sadhya Pranahara Marmas
Sadhya=immediate, Pranahara=life taking

Therefore Sadhya Pranahara Marmas are those vital points on the body, the injury of which causes immediate death. In true sense it might not mean that the death of the individual would occur, rather the part of the body related to that marma might just be rendered lifeless (loss of functions, irreversible degeneration, death, decay etc) following injury. Some Marmas like Hridaya (heart), Vasti (urinary bladder), Nabhi (navel), Kantha Sira (blood vessels around the neck) etc might cause immediate death. Thus, some marmas might cause immediate death of the individual on getting injured and few might cause immediate death of organ or system related to the injured marma.

Sadhya Pranahara Marmas are 19 in number. They are as enlisted below –

  • Srungataka – 4 in number
  • Adhipati(located at the superior part of the intra-cranial portion) – 1 in number
  • Shankha (located between ear and forehead, temple region) – 2 in number, 1 each on right and left temples
  • Matruka or Kanta sira (located in the neck) – 8 in number, 4 on each side of the neck, on the side of trachea or windpipe
  • Guda(located in the anal region) – 1 in number
  • Vasti(urinary bladder) – 1 in number
  • Nabhi (navel) – 1 in number
  • Hrudaya (heart) – 1 in number

Kalantara Pranahara Marmas
Kalantara=Gradual, Pranahara=life taking, death

Thus Kalantara Pranahara Marmas are those which take away the life or cause death over a period of time. This means, they cause gradual death or destruction of an organ or system following injury. The impact of injury is slow in comparison to Sadhyo Pranahara Marmas.

Kalantara Pranahara Marmas are 33 in number and are as below mentioned –

  • Stanamula(located below the breast) – 2 in number, one on each side of the chest, below left and right breast respectively
  • Stanarohita(located above the nipples) – 2 in number, one on each side of the chest
  • Apalapa(located below the acromian process of the scapula) – 2 in number, one below the acromian process of right scapula and one below the acromian process of left scapula
  • Apastambha (located on the sides of thorax) – 2 in number, 1 on left side of the thorax and 1 on the right side of the thorax
  • Seemanta(sutural joints located in the head) – 5 in number
  • Talahridaya(located in the middle of the palm / foot) – 4 in number, 2 in upper limb and 2 in lower limb
  • Kshipra(located between thumb and fingers in the upper limb and between the big toe and toes in the lower limb) – 4 in number, 1 each between right and left thumb and forefinger, 1 each between right and left big toe and first toe
  • Indrabasti(located in the middle of the forearm / leg) – 4 in number, 2 in upper limb and 2 in lower limb
  • Kateekataruna(located on the pelvic bone on either side of the vertebral column) – 2 in number, 1 each on right and left pelvic bones
  • Parshwa sandhi(located in the lower part of the hip bone) – 2 in number, 1 below the lower part of the right hip and 1 below the lower part of the left hip bone
  • Brihati(located on the lateral parts of the vertebral column, at the level of sthanamula marma) – 2 in number, 1 on the left of spinal column and 1 on the right of spinal column
  • Nitamba(located above pelvic region) – 2 in number, 1 each above the right and left pelvic regions

Vishalyaghna Marmas
Vishalyaghna marmas are those marmas which take away the life once the impacted foreign body (like a weapon) in the body is removed. (Vishalya = removing foreign body, ghna = kills)

Vishalyaghna Marmas are 3 in number. They are –

  • Utkshepa – (located at the level of hair line of scalp, above temples) – 2 in numbers, 1 each above the right and left temples
  • Sthapani – (located in between the eye brows) – 1 in number

Vaikalyakara Marmas
Vaikalya = deformity, Kara = causing

Vaikalyakara Marmas are those which cause deformity of the body or body part / parts when they get injured.

Vaikalyakara Marmas are 44 in number. They are as enlisted below –

  • Lohitaksha (located below the groin or thigh fold, at the root of the lower limb and below the lower part of shoulder joint in the upper limb) – 4 in number, 1 each below the right and left groin and 1 each below the right and left shoulder
  • Aani (located above kurpara marma or elbow joint in the upper limb and above janu marma or knee joint in the lower limb) – 4 in number, 1 each above the left and right elbow joint and 1 each above the left and right knee joint
  • Jaanu – Janu Marmas are located in the knee joint. They are 2 in number, 1 each on the left and right knee joints.
  • Bahvi in upper limb / Urvi in lower limb (located in the middle of the thigh in the lower limb and in the middle of arm in the upper limb) – 4 in number, 1 each in the middle of right and left thigh, 1 each in the middle of right and left arm
  • Kurcha(proximal to the junction between the thumb and forefinger in the upper limb and proximal to the junction between the big toe and first toe in the lower limb) – 4 in number, 1 proximal to the junction between the right thumb and index, 1 proximal to the junction between the left thumb and index, 1 proximal to the junction between the right big toe and first toe and 1 proximal to the junction between the left big toe and first toe
  • Vitapa – Vitapa marma represents Kakshadhara marma in the lower limb and are 2 in number, one located between the right testis and groin and the other located between the left testis and groin.
  • Kurpara (located at the elbow joint) – 2 in number, 1 each on the right and left elbow joints
  • Kukundara(located on the lateral part of the gluteal region) – 2 in number, 1 each on the lateral part of right and left gluteal regions
  • Kakshadhara in upper limb / Vitapain lower limb (located between the thorax and axilla or armpit) – 2 in number, 1 between the right part of thorax and axilla and 1 between the left thorax and axilla.
  • Vidhura(located posterior and inferior to the ears) – 2 in number, 1 each posterior and inferior to the right and left ears
  • Krukatika(located at the site of junction of head and neck) – 2 in number, 1 on each side of the junction of head and neck
  • Amsa(located near the shoulder and scapular region, in between the brachium, head and neck) – 2 in number, 1 near the right scapular region and 1 near the left scapular region
  • Amsaphalaka(located on the upper part of the back, in scapular region, on each side of vertebral column) – 2 in number, 1 each on the left and right part of the upper back or scapular regions
  • Apanga (located on the lateral angle of the eye, outer canthus) – 2 in number, one on either side of the outer canthus or outer end of the eyebrow on left and right eyes
  • Neela(located in the neck) – 2 in number, 1 on each side of the neck, lateral to Matruka
  • Manya dhamani(located in the neck) – 2 in number, 1 on each side of the neck, lateral to Matruka
  • Phana(located on both sides of the olfactory tracts in the nose) – 2 in number
  • Aavarta(located just above the eyebrows) – 2 in number, 1 each above the right and left eyebrows

Rujakara Marmas
Ruja=Pain, Kara=Causing

Rujakara Marmas are those which cause pain when they get injured or damaged. They are 8 in number and are as enlisted below.

  • Gulpha(located at the ankle joint) – 2 in number, 1 each at right and left ankle joint
  • Manibandha(located at the wrist joint) – 2 in number, 1 each at right and left wrist joint
  • Kurchashira(located distal to wrist joint in the upper limb and distal to ankle joint in the lower limb) – 4in number, 1 distal to right wrist, 1 distal to left wrist, 1 distal to right ankle and 1 distal to left ankle.

 

ayurvedic treatments

Useful Links

Medicinal plants of India ; Ayurveda

Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants/Herbs mainly using in Ayurveda with good quality pictures and information like therapeutic usage of Medicinal Plants, cultivation, morphology, habitat, flower characters, Chemical content, parts used, research works etc.