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Classification Of Marma Based On Location In The Body

 


Marmas are also classified based on the location, i.e. depending on the part of the body in which they are located. The classification is as below described – 

Bahu Marma – marmas in limbs – 11 X 4
Udara Uras marma: Marmas located in the trunk – 12
Prushta Marma – 14
Greeva Urdhva Marma: Marmas located in the head and neck – 37

 

Bahu Marma: Marmas located in the limbs
There are a total of 11 marmas in each limb thus making a total of 44 (11×4) marmas inclusive of marmas located in both upper and lower limbs. The names of most of the marmas located in the upper and lower limb are almost the same with few exceptions (changed names are mentioned in the description below). The Marmas in the limbs are as enlisted below –

  • Kshipra(located between thumb and fingers in the upper limb and between the big toe and toes in the lower limb) – 4 in number, 1 each between right and left thumb and forefinger, 1 each between right and left big toe and first toe
  • Talahridaya(located in the middle of the palm / foot) – 4 in number, 2 in upper limb and 2 in lower limb
  • Kurcha(proximal to the junction between the thumb and forefinger in the upper limb and proximal to the junction between the big toe and first toe in the lower limb) – 4 in number, 1 proximal to the junction between the right thumb and index, 1 proximal to the junction between the left thumb and index, 1 proximal to the junction between the right big toe and first toe and 1 proximal to the junction between the left big toe and first toe
  • Kurchashira(located distal to wrist joint in the upper limb and distal to ankle joint in the lower limb) – 4in number, 1 distal to right wrist, 1 distal to left wrist, 1 distal to right ankle and 1 distal to left ankle
  • Manibandha(located at the wrist joint) – 2 in number, 1 each at right and left wrist joint
  • Indrabasti(located in the middle of the forearm / leg) – 4 in number, 2 in upper limb and 2 in lower limb
  • Kurpara (located at the elbow joint) – 2 in number, 1 each on the right and left elbow joints. In the lower limb, it is represented by Janu Marma (located in the knee joint) – 2 in number, 1 each on the left and right knee joints.
  • Aani (located above kurpara marma or elbow joint in the upper limb and above janu marma or knee joint in the lower limb) – 4 in number, 1 each above the left and right elbow joint and 1 each above the left and right knee joint
  • Bahvi in upper limb / Urvi in lower limb (located in the middle of the thigh in the lower limb and in the middle of arm in the upper limb) – 4 in number, 1 each in the middle of right and left thigh, 1 each in the middle of right and left arm
  • Lohitaksha (located below the groin or thigh fold, at the root of the lower limb and below the lower part of shoulder joint in the upper limb) – 4 in number, 1 each below the right and left groin and 1 each below the right and left shoulder
  • Kakshadhara in upper limb / Vitapain lower limb (located between the thorax and axilla or armpit) – 2 in number, 1 between the right part of thorax and axilla and 1 between the left thorax and axilla. Vitapa marma represents Kakshadhara marma in the lower limb and are 2 in number, one located between the right testis and groin and the other located between the left testis and groin.

Udara Uras marma: Marmas located in the trunk (thorax or rib cage and abdomen or belly/tummy)
There are a total of 26 Marmas scattered over the trunk. They are as enlisted below:

  • Guda(located in the anal region) – 1 in number
  • Vasti(urinary bladder) – 1 in number
  • Nabhi (navel) – 1 in number
  • Hrudaya (heart) – 1 in number
  • Stanamula(located below the breast) – 2 in number, one on each side of the chest, below left and right breast respectively
  • Stanarohita(located above the nipples) – 2 in number, one on each side of the chest
  • Apalapa(located below the acromian process of the scapula) – 2 in number, one below the acromian process of right scapula and one below the acromian process of left scapula
  • Apastambha (located on the sides of thorax) – 2 in number, 1 on left side of the thorax and 1 on the right side of the thorax
  • Kateekataruna(located on the pelvic bone on either side of the vertebral column) – 2 in number, 1 each on right and left pelvic bones
  • Kukundara(located on the lateral part of the gluteal region) – 2 in number, 1 each on the lateral part of right and left gluteal regions
  • Nitamba(located above pelvic region) – 2 in number, 1 each above the right and left pelvic regions
  • Parshwa sandhi(located in the lower part of the hip bone) – 2 in number, 1 below the lower part of the right hip and 1 below the lower part of the left hip bone
  • Brihati(located on the lateral parts of the vertebral column, at the level of sthanamula marma) – 2 in number, 1 on the left of spinal column and 1 on the right of spinal column
  • Amsaphalaka(located on the upper part of the back, in scapular region, on each side of vertebral column) – 2 in number, 1 each on the left and right part of the upper back or scapular regions
  • Amsa(located near the shoulder and scapular region, in between the brachium, head and neck) – 2 in number, 1 near the right scapular region and 1 near the left scapular region

Jatru Urdhva Marma: Marmas located in the head and neck
There are 37 marmas all together in the region of head and neck. They are as enlisted below –

  • Neela(located in the neck) – 2 in number, 1 on each side of the neck, lateral to Matruka
  • Manya dhamani(located in the neck) – 2 in number, 1 on each side of the neck, lateral to Matruka
  • Matruka or Kanta sira (located in the neck) – 8 in number, 4 on each side of the neck, on the side of trachea or windpipe
  • Krukatika(located at the site of junction of head and neck) – 2 in number, 1 on each side of the junction of head and neck
  • Vidhura(located posterior and inferior to the ears) – 2 in number, 1 each posterior and inferior to the right and left ears
  • Phana(located on both sides of the olfactory tracts in the nose) – 2 in number
  • Apanga (located on the lateral angle of the eye, outer canthus) – 2 in number, one on either side of the outer canthus or outer end of the eyebrow on left and right eyes
  • Aavarta(located just above the eyebrows) – 2 in number, 1 each above the right and left eyebrows
  • Shankha (located between ear and forehead, temple region) – 2 in number, 1 each on right and left temples
  • Utkshepa(located at the level of hair line of scalp, above temples) – 2 in number, 1 each above the right and left temples
  • Sthapanee(located in between the eye brows) – 1 in number
  • Seemanta(sutural joints located in the head) – 5 in number
  • Adhipati(located at the superior part of the intra-cranial portion) – 1 in number

Prushta Marma – marmas in the back:

  • Katikataruna(located on the pelvic bone on either side of the vertebral column) – 2 in number, 1 each on right and left pelvic bones
  • Kukundara(located on the lateral part of the gluteal region) – 2 in number, 1 each on the lateral part of right and left gluteal regions
  • Nitamba(located above pelvic region) – 2 in number, 1 each above the right and left pelvic regions
  • Parshwa sandhi(located in the lower part of the hip bone) – 2 in number, 1 below the lower part of the right hip and 1 below the lower part of the left hip bone
  • Brihati(located on the lateral parts of the vertebral column, at the level of sthanamula marma) – 2 in number, 1 on the left of spinal column and 1 on the right of spinal column
  • Amsaphalaka(located on the upper part of the back, in scapular region, on each side of vertebral column) – 2 in number, 1 each on the left and right part of the upper back or scapular regions
  • Amsa(located near the shoulder and scapular region, in between the brachium, head and neck) – 2 in number, 1 near the right scapular region and 1 near the left scapular region

Charaka’s Tri-Marma
Charaka has mentioned 3 important organs (areas) of the body as Marmas and has explained them in detail. They are called TriMarmas (3 marmas). It is not that Charaka has not accepted the 107 Marmas and their importance, but he has demarcated the 3 vital organs namely Hridaya (Heart), Vasti (urinary apparatus, Urinary bladder to be precise) and Shira (head, brain) as the most important among the Marmas.

मर्माणि पुनः वस्ति हृदय मूर्धादीनि।(च.सू.११/४८)
The 3 Marmas according to Charaka are Vasti, Hridaya and Murdha or Shira.

शाखा आश्रितेभ्यो मर्मेभ्यः स्कन्ध आश्रितानि गरीयांसि, शाखानां तद् आश्रितत्वात्।
स्कन्ध आश्रितेभ्यो अपि हृद् वस्ति शिरांसि गरीयांसि।(च.सि.६)

The Marmas located in the Skandha (trunk – chest and belly and Shira – head) are more vital in comparison to the Marmas of the Shakha (extremities) because the extremities (upper and lower limbs) are connected to the trunk and also are dependent on the trunk.

Among the marmas located in the skandha, the Hridaya, Vasti and Shira are the most important ones.

 

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