Ayurveda Treatment Methods

A Guide Line To Ayurveda Treatments & Principles

Marma Classification Based On Structure

 


Marmas are those vital points or areas of the body which when injured may cause one or the other of – immediate death, gradual death (structural and functional impairment), deformity of body parts and or severe pain.

 The effect of injury depends on the type of marma and nature of injury affected on the marma.

Marmas are the points which are made up of congruence of 5 important structures of the body with predominance of one of the structures while other remains dormant. The marma is named depending on the predominant structure making up the composition of the marma. The structures meeting at the point of marma are – mamsa (muscle), sira (blood vessels), snayu (ligaments, tendons), asthi (bones) and sandhi (joints). The Marmas are scattered all over the body and form important anatomical landmarks.

Classification on the basis of structure involved
Based on the predominant structure involved in the Marma, Marmas are classified into 5 types.

Mamsa Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of muscle tissue)
Sira Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of blood vessels)
Snayu Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of tendons and ligaments)
Asthi Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of bones)
Sandhi Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of joints)

Mamsa Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of muscle tissue) – 11 in number according to Sushruta (10 – according to Vagbhata). They are:

  • Talahridaya(located in the middle of the palm / foot) – 4 in number, 2 in upper limb and 2 in lower limb
  • Indrabasti(located in the middle of the forearm / leg) – 4 in number, 2 in upper limb and 2 in lower limb
  • Guda(located in the anal region) – 1 in number
  • Stanarohita(located above the nipples) – 2 in number, one on each side of the chest

Sira Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of blood vessels) – 41 in number according to Sushruta (37 – according to Vagbhata). They are:

  • Neela(located in the neck) – 2 in number, 1 on each side of the neck, lateral to Matruka
  • Manya dhamani(located in the neck) – 2 in number, 1 on each side of the neck, lateral to Matruka
  • Maatruka /kantha sira(located in the neck) – 8 in number, 4 on each side of the neck, side of trachea or windpipe
  • Srungataka – 4 in number
  • Apanga (located on the lateral angle of the eye, outer canthus) – 2 in number, one on either side of the outer canthus or outer end of the eyebrow on left and right eyes
  • Sthapanee(located in between the eye brows) – 1 in number
  • Phana(located on both sides of the olfactory tracts in the nose) – 2 in number
  • Stanamula(located below the breast) – 2 in number, one on each side of the chest, below left and right breast respectively
  • Apalapa(located below the acromian process of the scapula) – 2 in number, one below the acromian process of right scapula and one below the acromian process of left scapula
  • Apastambha (located on the sides of thorax) – 2 in number, 1 on left side of the thorax and 1 on the right side of the thorax
  • Hrudaya (heart) – 1 in number
  • Nabhi (navel) – 1 in number
  • Parshwa sandhi(located in the lower part of the hip bone) – 2 in number, 1 below the lower part of the right hip and 1 below the lower part of the left hip bone
  • Brihati(located on the lateral parts of the vertebral column, at the level of sthanamula marma) – 2 in number, 1 on the left of spinal column and 1 on the right of spinal column
  • Lohitaksha / Vitapa (located below the groin or thigh fold, at the root of the lower limb and below the lower part of shoulder joint in the upper limb) – 4 in number, 1 each below the right and left groin and 1 each below the right and left shoulder. Vitapa marma represents Kakshadhara marma in the lower limb and are 2 in number, one located between the right testis and groin and the other located between the left testis and groin.
  • Urvi / Bahvi(located in the middle of the thigh in the lower limb and in the middle of arm in the upper limb) – 4 in number, 1 each in the middle of right and left thigh, 1 each in the middle of right and left arm

Snayu Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of tendons and ligaments) – 27 in number according to Sushruta (23 according to Vagbhata). They are:

  • Aani (located above kurpara marma or elbow joint in the upper limb and above janu marma or knee joint in the lower limb) – 4 in number, 1 each above the left and right elbow joint and 1 each above the left and right knee joint
  • Vitapa(located between the groin and testicle) – 2 in number, 1 in between right groin and testicle and 1 between left groin and testicle
  • Kakshadhara(located between the thorax and axilla or armpit) – 2 in number, 1 between the right part of thorax and axilla and 1 between the left thorax and axilla
  • Kurcha(proximal to the junction between the thumb and forefinger in the upper limb and proximal to the junction between the big toe and first toe in the lower limb) – 4 in number, 1 proximal to the junction between the right thumb and index, 1 proximal to the junction between the left thumb and index, 1 proximal to the junction between the right big toe and first toe and 1 proximal to the junction between the left big toe and first toe
  • Kurchashira(located distal to wrist joint in the upper limb and distal to ankle joint in the lower limb) – 4in number, 1 distal to right wrist, 1 distal to left wrist, 1 distal to right ankle and 1 distal to left ankle
  • Vasti(urinary bladder) – 1 in number
  • Kshipra(located between thumb and fingers in the upper limb and between the big toe and toes in the lower limb) – 4 in number, 1 each between right and left thumb and forefinger, 1 each between right and left big toe and first toe
  • Amsa(located near the shoulder and scapular region, in between the brachium, head and neck) – 2 in number, 1 near the right scapular region and 1 near the left scapular region
  • Vidhura(located posterior and inferior to the ears) – 2 in number, 1 each posterior and inferior to the right and left ears
  • Utkshepa(located at the level of hair line of scalp, above temples) – 2 in number, 1 each above the right and left temples

Asthi Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of bones) – 08 in number according to Sushruta (08 according to Vagbhata). They are:

  • Kateekataruna(located on the pelvic bone on either side of the vertebral column) – 2 in number, 1 each on right and left pelvic bones
  • Nitamba(located above pelvic region) – 2 in number, 1 each above the right and left pelvic regions
  • Amsaphalaka(located on the upper part of the back, in scapular region, on each side of vertebral column) – 2 in number, 1 each on the left and right part of the upper back or scapular regions
  • Shankha (located between ear and forehead, temple region) – 2 in number, 1 each on right and left temples

Sandhi Marma (Marmas predominantly made up of joints) – 20 in number according to Sushruta (20 in number according to Vagbhata). They are:

  • Janu (located on the knee joint) – 2 in number, 1 each on the right and left knee joint
  • Kurpara (located at the elbow joint) – 2 in number, 1 each on the right and left elbow joints
  • Seemanta(sutural joints located in the head) – 5 in number
  • Adhipati(located at the superior part of the intra-cranial portion) – 1 in number
  • Gulpha(located at the ankle joint) – 2 in number, 1 each at right and left ankle joint
  • Manibandha(located at the wrist joint) – 2 in number, 1 each at right and left wrist joint
  • Kukundara(located on the lateral part of the gluteal region) – 2 in number, 1 each on the lateral part of right and left gluteal regions
  • Aavarta(located just above the eyebrows) – 2 in number, 1 each above the right and left eyebrows
  • Krukatika(located at the site of junction of head and neck) – 2 in number, 1 on each side of the junction of head and neck

Vagbhata has given an account of Dhamani Marmas (Marmas predominantly made up of arteries) which Sushruta has not mentioned (included them under Sira Marmas) separately. According to Vagbhata these Marmas are 9 in number.

But the total tall of all the Marmas put together is 107, both according to Sushruta and Vagbhata.

 

ayurvedic treatments

Useful Links

Medicinal plants of India ; Ayurveda

Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants/Herbs mainly using in Ayurveda with good quality pictures and information like therapeutic usage of Medicinal Plants, cultivation, morphology, habitat, flower characters, Chemical content, parts used, research works etc.