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Guidelines for Unani Practitioners for Clinical Management of Dengue Fever by CCRH & AYUSH
Dengue fever is known as Hummā Danj in Unani medicine. It is one of the Wabā’ī Amrāz
experienced in the past and treated on the pattern of other Wabā’ī Amrāz. Prevention and
treatment of Wabā’ī Amrāz has been well described in Unani system of medicine.
Hummā Danj (Dengue Fever) is an acute febrile illness caused by a flavivirus
transmitted by the Aedes mosquito and characterized by sudden onset of high fever, severe
muscle and joint pain, headache, rash, sore throat, lymphadenopathy and depression.
The causative agent of Dengue Fever is dengue virus which belongs to genus Flavivirus.
There are four serotypes of dengue virus – DEN-1, 2, 3 and 4; all produce a similar clinical
syndrome and all are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which bite in the daytime and
breed in standing water. Infection with one serotype provides life-long immunity to that
serotype but not to the other three serotypes.
Humans are infective during the first 3 days of the illness (the viraemic stage).
Mosquitoes become infective about 2 weeks after feeding on an infected individual, and
remain so for the rest of their lives.
The incubation period is 4 to 6 days (range 3 to 14 days) following the mosquito bite.
Asymptomatic or mild infections are common. Two clinical forms are recognized: Classic
Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF).
2 days of malaise and headache
o Continuous or 'saddle-back', with break on 4th or 5th day and then
recrudescence; usually lasts 7-8 days
Break-bone aching ('break-bone fever'): severe headache, backache, myalgias and
Retro-orbital pain (pain on eye movement)
o Initial flushing faint macular rash in first 1-2 days. Maculopapular, scarlet
morbilliform rash from days 3-5 on trunk, spreading centrifugally and sparing
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palms and soles, onset often with fever defervescence. May desquamate on
resolution or give rise to petechiae on extensor surfaces
Anorexia, Nausea, and Vomiting
o A positive tourniquet test
o Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura
o Bleeding per mucosa, GIT, other
o Haematemesis, melaena.
o Thrombocytopenia <100,000/mm³
Minor bleeding from mucosal sites, hepatitis, cerebral haemorrhage or oedema,
In the past, the Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine has created
awareness in the community on the preventive approach to control Dengue Fever. Unani
medicines and preventive measures suggested by CCRUM proved fruitful.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR DENGUE
Primary prevention of dengue is currently possible only with vector control and personal
protection from the bites of infected mosquitoes.
Be aware of countries or areas where dengue fever is endemic.
Mosquitoes may be in more number close to or on spaces with plenty of trees, so keep
away from such spaces.
Don’t allow any kind of water around your environment.
Changes to vector habitats: Management of “essential” containers
o Frequently empty and clean the purposely-filled household containers such as
water-storage vessels, flower vases and desert room coolers
o Recycle or properly dispose of the rain-filled habitats – including used tyres
and discarded food and beverage containers
o Shelter stored tyres from rainfall
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o Manage or remove from the vicinity of homes the plants such as ornamental or
wild bromeliads that collect water in the leaf axils
Actions to reduce human–vector contact
o Install mosquito screening on windows, doors and other entry points
o Use insecticide-treated mosquito nets while sleeping during daytime (e.g.
infants, the bedridden and night-shift workers)
o Wear covered clothes to minimize skin exposure during daylight hours when
mosquitoes are most active
o Apply mosquito repellents containing DEET, IR3535 or Icaridin to exposed
skin or to clothing.
o Use household insecticide aerosol products, mosquito coils or other insecticide
vaporizers to reduce biting activity.
TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Bed rest during the acute phase
Try to keep temperature below 102°F:
o Use antipyretics to lower the body temperature:
Habb-e-Ikseer Bukhar: 400 mg thrice a day with lukewarm water
(NFUM-VI, page 15)
Sharbat-e-Khaksi: 25-50 ml (NFUM-V, page 140)
Malerian: Adult: 6 ml BD, Children: 3 ml BD with warm water,
contraindicated for pregnant women (NFUM-VI, page 122)
o Use cold sponging
Try to avoid Dehydration:
o Use Oral rehydration solution (ORS)
o Use fruit juices like pomegranate juice
o Sharbat-e-Anar Shirin: 25-50 ml (NFUM-I, page 221)
Use the Unani drugs possessing immunomodulatory activity to boost your immunity:
o Khamira Marwareed: 3-5 g (NFUM-I, page 111)
Use the Unani drugs with hepato-corrective and hepato-protective activity to
normalize the functions of the liver:
o Majun Dabid-ul-Ward: 5 g BD (NFUM-V, page 90)
Use Jawarishat to relieve the gastrointestinal symptoms including anorexia, nausea,
o Jawarish Amla Sada: 5 g BD (NFUM-V, page 71)
o Jawarish Anarain: 5 g BD (NFUM-I, page 98)
Some Important Prescriptions
- Powder the following ingredients and prepare the tablets of 500 mg.
Gilo Khushk (Tinospora cordifolia Miers) 1 Part
Tabasheer (Bambusa bambos Linn.) 1 Part
Tukhm Khurfa Siyah (Portulaca oleracea Linn.) 1 Part
Two tablets twice daily
- Sharbat Khaksi: 25 ml twice daily
- Habb-e-Ikseer Bukhar: 500 mg twice daily
- Sharbat Khaksi: 25 ml twice daily
- Sharbat Khaksi: 25 ml twice daily
- Majun Dabid-ul-Ward: 5 g twice daily
iii. Khamira Marwareed: 3-5 g twice daily
The eminent Unani Physicians suggested that the sachet containing the following ingredients
may be distributed for prevention. This may be used in the form of decoction or tea.
Afsanteen Artemisia absinthium Linn. 1 Part
Chiraita Swertia chirayita Karst. 1 Part
Kasni Cichorium intybus Linn. 1 Part
Gaozaban Borago officinalis Linn. 1 Part
Nankhuah Trachyspermum ammi 1 Part
Neem Bark Azadirachta indica A. Juss. 1 Part
Saad Kufi Cyperus scariosus R. Br. 1 Part
NOTHING TO PANIC
Dengue Fever is a self-limiting disease. Only timely and proper intervention is required to
attain perfect health and to prevent complications and fatal outcome. Use preventive
measures and medicines as mentioned above. The nearest hospital may be approached for
Clinical studies on Dengue Fever may be conducted in collaboration with modern medical
centres so that the life of the patients may be saved in emergency conditions. In active cases
of Classic Dengue Fever, supportive Unani treatment for strengthening the Quwwa
(Faculties) may be given as an adjuvant therapy to allopathic treatment in order to shorten the
duration of illness, and to relieve the symptoms following the acute illness like general
weakness and depression. The record of the efficacy of the Unani drugs evaluated may be
For more information please contact
CENTRAL COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN UNANI MEDICINE
Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi)
61-65, Institutional Area, Opposite “D” Block, Janakpuri, New Delhi-110058
Tel. No.: +91-11-28521981
Fax No.: +91-11-28522965