Ayurveda Treatment Methods

A Guide Line To Ayurveda Treatments & Principles

Action of Shaddharana Choornam , A modern point of view

 

 

I am making this propable hypothesis , by using various reserch papers available. You can find the refernce links below.

 

 

Shaddharana churna one of the famous ayurvedic preparation, it consist of 6 herbal ingredients.

 

Indication: Effective in Rheumatic complaints, , skin diseases, piles, diabetes, flatulence, rheumatoid arthritis, gall stones and obesity.

 

Dose :  ½ to 1 teaspoon along with gomutra or warm water, twice daily before or after food as directed by physician. Tablets 1 or 2 tablets along with water or as directed by the physician.

 

Side effects: May induce gastric irritation in higher dose, Used under medical supervision.

 

Here is given more about this medicine, such as benefits, indication/therapeutic uses, composition and dosage.

·         Reference Text: Sushrut Samhita

·         Significance of name Shad Dharana: Shad (six) + Dharana (amount of each ingredient is one Dharana)

·         Synonyms: Shaddharana Yoga, Shaddharana Churnam, Shad dharana Powder, When available in form of tablet Shaddharana tablet or Shaddharana Gutika

·         Availability: Online and at medical stores

·         Type of medicine: Classical Medicine

·         Main Indication: Vata Roga, flatulence, Toxins in body

·         Dosha Effect: Balances Vata

·         Astangasamgraham.

·          

·         Original sanskrit verse –

·         चित्रकेन्द्रयवा: पाठा कटुकाऽतिविषाऽभया

·         वातव्याधिप्रशमनो योग: षड्धरण: स्मृत:

 

·         citrakendrayavā: pāṭhā kaṭukā’tiviṣā’bhayā |

·         vātavyādhipraśamano yoga: ṣaḍdharaṇa: smṛta: ||

 

 

Ingredients of Shaddharana Choornam

Shaddharana Yoga Sushrut Samhita

1.  Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica) Root/Root Bark

2.  Indrayav (Holarrhena antidysenterica) Seeds

3.  Patha (Cissampelos pariera) Root

4.  Katuka (Picrorhiza kurroa) Rhizome

5.  Ativisha (Aconitum heterophylum) Tuberous Root

6.  Abhaya / Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) Fruit pulp

Haritaki helps in Vatavyadhi. It is carminative or anulomna.

Shaddharana Yoga (Ashtang Sangraha and Ashtang Hridaya)

In this Abhaya (Haritaki) is replaced by Darvi and this should be used in Kushtha Chikitsa.

1.  Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica) Root/Root Bark

2.  Indrayav (Holarrhena antidysenterica) Seeds

3.  Patha (Cissampelos pariera) Root

4.  Katuka (Picrorhiza kurroa) Rhizome

5.  Ativisha (Aconitum heterophylum) Tuberous Root

6.  Darvi (Berberis aristata) Root/Root Bark

Daruhaldi is good for diseases of skin.

Ayurvedic Action / Karma

1.  Amapachana: Toxin digester.

2.  Bhedana: Causes excretion of accmulated faeces and Doshas

3.  Deepan: Increase appetite.

4.  Jwarahara: Decreases vega of jwara and reduces the burning sensation.

5.  Kasahara: Removes cough.

6.  Pachana: Digests Ama but does not increase appetite.

Important Therapeutic Uses of Shaddharana Choornam

1.  Amashayagata Vata (Disorder related to Stomach & Small Intestine)

2.  Ascites, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, pain

3.  Diabetes

4.  Fever

5.  Kushtha (Skin Diseases), leprosy

6.  Piles, flatulence

Dosage of Shaddharana Choornam

·         The recommended dosage of medicine is half teaspoon or 3 grams per day, for seven days in case of toxins, aggravated Vata in Amashaya region.

·         It is given with cow’s urine/Go Mutra or warm water, in leprosy, hemorrhoids, diabetes, oedema, anemia, indigestion and intestinal worms for a period of one month.

·         The tablet of strength 500mg can be taken in dose of 1 2 tablet, once or twice a day.

·         It is to be taken with warm water or Chhach/Buttermilk.

·         Or take as directed by doctor.

Suggestions, Contraindications, Interactions, Side effects and Warnings

1.  It is completely safe to take this medicine in recommended doses.

2.  Effectivity of herbal medicine depends on many factors. A medicine suitable for one person may not essentially give same result in another person.

3.  Exact dose depends on the age, strength, digestive power of the patient, the nature of the illness, the state of the viscera and humours, and the properties of individual drugs.

4.  Keep away from the sight and reach of children.

5.  It is hot in nature, so should be used with caution in summer and by hot temperament individuals and menstruating women.

6.  It should be taken only in recommended doses. High doses cause burning sensation.

 

 

 

Action of each Drugs

 

 

 

1.     Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica) Root/Root Bark

a.     ethanol extract from Plumbago zeylanica, inhibited systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in mice, reduced homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and skin reactions induced by histamine or serotonin in rats, significant differences were observed

b.      Anti bacterial Activity: The aqueous extract and its partition (Petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol, aqueous residue) were effective against Salmonella gallinarum, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts from roots of Plumbago zeylanicaexhibited activity against Bacillus subtilisEscherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphyloccocus aureus. The alcoholic extract from roots of Plumbago zeylanica was tested against multi-drug resistant of clinical origin (Salmonella paratyphi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae). The extract exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. Plumbagin augments the macrophage bactericidal activity by potentiating the oxyradical release at low concentration whereas at the higher concentration it has inhibitory activity in BALB/c mice 

Plumbagin was studied for its effect on the development of antibiotic resistance using antibiotic sensitive strains of E. coliStaphylococcus aureus. The growth was completely prevented when the bacteria were grown in the medium containing antibiotic (Streptomycin / Rifampin) and plumbagin together, and attributed to prevention of development of antibiotic resistant cell . 82 plants were evaluated for antibacterial activity, amongthem onlyalcoholic extract of Plumbago zeylanica, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica showed potential antibacterial activity 16. The alcoholic extract of Plumbago zeylanica roots was tested against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of bacteria. The extract exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all  the test bacteria irrespective to their antibiotic resistance behaviour . In another study the synergistic activity of antimycobacterial constituents from Plumbago zeylanica was evaluated in combination with isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) against four atypical organisms, namely, Mycobacterium intracellulare, M. smegmatis, M. xenopei and M. chelonei. The potency of INH was increased four-fold, The MIC values of plumbagin (from Plumbago zeylanica) were thus lowered from 1.25-2.5 to 0.15-0.3 µg/ml due to synergism with INH . Water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of Plumbago zeylanica were used to evaluate the anti-helicobacter pylori activity. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration against five H. pylori strains, of which ranged from 0.32 to 1.28mg/ml, followed, in ascending order, by the acetone, ethanol and water analogs. Bactericidal activity was also determined, with the lowest minimum bactericidal concentrations demonstrated for the ethyl acetate, followed in ascending order, by the acetone and ethanol analogs 

c.      Central nervous system activity: The effects of a 50% ethanol extract of the root of P. zeylanica were investigated on locomotor behaviour and central dopaminergic activity in rats. The extract significantly increased the spontaneous motility in animals. The stereotypic behaviour which is characteristic of a dopamine agonist showed biphasic effects. The results showed that the extract of the root of P. zeylanica specifically enhanced the spontaneous ambulatory activity without inducing stereotypic behaviour . Hydroalcoholic extract of Plumbago zeylanica leaf were evaluated for central nervous system activities. It was found that extract showed significant CNS depressant activity, with muscle relaxant properties. It also showed anxiolytic activity . Hydroalcoholic extract of plumbago zeylanica was investigated for anticonvulsant activity. The results showed that extract did not posses anticonvulsant activity .

d.      Anticandidal Activity: Alcoholic extracts of Plumbago zeylanica showed strong antifungal activity against the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans, and dermatophytes, Epidermophyton floccosumMicrosporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to be 4mg/ml .

e.       Protective Effect against Cyclophosphamide Induced Geno-toxicity and oxidative Stress: Pretreatment with the alcoholic root extract of Plumbago zeylanica (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally for 5 days) significantly reduced the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), increased the PCE/NCE (normochromatic erythrocyte) ratio in the bone marrow, and decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation products with concomitant changes in the status of antioxidants. Both the doses of Plumbago zeylanica were effective in exerting a protective effect against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress .

f.       Anti allergic activity: 70% ethanol extract from Plumbago zeylanica stems (EPZ) dose-dependently inhibited systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in mice, reduced homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and skin reactions induced by histamine or serotonin in rats.EPZ (50 µg/ml) markedly increased intracellular cAMP content of rat mast cells. These findings demonstrate that EPZ inhibits mast cell-dependent immediate allergic reactions, which is probably mediated by reducing the release of mediators such as histamine from mast cells via elevating intracellular cAMP level and weakening the inflammatory action of mediators 

g.     .Hyperglycaemia in rats, treated with ethanol root extract of Plumbago zeylanica: The effects of the ethanol extract of the root of Plumbago zeylanicawere studied in the rat. The results show that thigh muscle hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were significantly reduced by 12.07%, 51.02%, 24.32% and 25.16% respectively in rats treated with the ethanol extract of Plumbago zeylanica when compared with the control. Serum pyruvate and lactate were significantly lowered in the experimental rats by 23.64% and 46.29%, respectively. The reduction in the activities of the key enzymes of glycolysis and its end-products suggests a reduction in flux across the glycolytic pathway in the extract-treated rats. This impairs with delivery and utilization of glucose by the peripheral tissue, thus substantiating the reported hyperglycemia in the extract-treated rats 

 

 

2.  Indrayav (Holarrhena antidysenterica) Seeds

a.     Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as a strategy for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many plant derived alkaloids (such as huperzine A, galanthamine and rivastigmine) are known for their AChE inhibitory activity. The aim of the present work was to isolate and identify new AChE inhibitors from Holarrhen antidysenterica

b.     In the course of searching for AChE inhibitors from herb medicines, the total alkaloidal extract from the seeds of H. antidysenterica was found having potent AChE inhibitory activity with an IC(50) value of 6.1 μg/mL. Further bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation afforded five steroidal alkaloids, conessine 1, isoconessimine 2, conessimin 3, conarrhimin 4 and conimin 5. All the isolated compounds, except for 2, showed strong AChE inhibiting activity with IC(50) values ranging from 4 to 28 μM. The most active inhibitor is compound 3 with an IC(50) value of 4 μM. The mode of AChE inhibition by 3 was reversible and non-competitive

 

 

 

3.  Patha (Cissampelos pariera) Root

a.     The C. peltata are found to contain alkaloids such as cycleanine, berberine, hayatinin, hayatidin and hayatin. Root contains bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, cycleapeltine, cycleadrine, cycleacuine, cycleanorine and cycleahomine chloride.

b.      Anti-Lithiasis effects: The root extract reduced the lithiasis confirmed by the reduced level of urinary oxalate and calcium in ethylene glycol induced lithiasis in rats.

c.      Anti-hyperlipidemic effects: The ethanolic extract reduced the total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and increased the HDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia induced rats.

d.     Anti-diabetic effect:  Aqueous extract significantly decreased both the fasting and postprandial blood glucose of type 2 diabetic rats and enhanced insulin levels in the diabetic rats.

e.      Anti-bacterial activity: Methanolic extract of whole plant of C. peltata had higher inhibitory action against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris while Acetone extract of plant showed maximum inhibitory action against Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptococcus haemolyticus.

f.       Anti-diuretic activity:

The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of C. peltata were studied for diuretic activity in wistar rats using Lipschitz et al. method. (35)(36) The diuretic effect of ethanolic extract was significantly higher than that of petroleum extract

 

 

4.  Katuka (Picrorhiza kurroa) Rhizome

a. the hepatoregenerative and hypolipidemic

effects of Picroliv, the preparation was shown to have similar

or more potent activities than silymarin, a purified fraction of

Silybum marianum (Asteraceae), commonly used in the

treatment of liver disorders. Aucubin was also shown to

potently inhibit phorbol ester-induced oedema in mice ears,

while catalpol and picroside II were not active. The latter

iridoids showed only minor anti-inflammatory effects upon

topical administration Moderate anti-inflammatory activity

of picroside-II when administered topically was confirmed

later, while pikuroside was ineffective Picrosides II, III, V,

6-feruloylcatalpol, and minecoside moderately inhibited

chemiluminescence generated by activated polymorphonuclear

neutrophils (PMNs), while picroside I was not active;

scavenging effects of these compounds were excluded

Picroliv however, as well as picroside I, was shown to be

moderate superoxide scavengers, while kutkoside showed only

weak activity[17]. Furthermore, Picroliv protected cells against

hypoxia, enhanced the expression of VEGF and HIF-1,

selectively inhibited protein tyrosine kinase activity, and

reduced PKC[52]. Caffeoyl Glycoside (CG) stimulated cell

proliferation of splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and

enhanced the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells

significantly.

The biological activities of P. Kurrooa can be described as

rhizome- diuretic roots-antibacterial and antimicrobial

activity[56] and alcoholic extracts of the roots being active

against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus and Escherichia

coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. P. kurrooa

has been shown to reduce mortality due to Plasmodium

berghei (parasite) and hepatitis-B (virus) hepatotoxicity. The

aqueous extract of the roots showed moderate activity against

Staphylococcus aureus and Staphtyphi and marked inhibition

against E. coli. The antifungal potential of alcoholic extract

of P. kurrooa was tested against the yeast Candida albicans.

The extract of this plant and its major constituents exhibited

significant activity against fungi

 

5.  Ativisha (Aconitum heterophylum) Tuberous Root

a. The biogenesis of intensely bitter diterpene

alkaloid atisine (I) (0.4% in the roots) and

atidine (II) has been discussed by

Whalley(17), Leete(18), Weissner (19) and

Wenkert (20) and it has been suggested that these compounds possibly originate from VI

& VIII by condensation with – amino ethnol

as per hypothetical route given by

whalley(17) and Leete(18). The biogenesis of

remaining members is also understable in

the above light.

       As can be seen, all these compounds have

the same absolute stereochemistry at

common reference points Gopinath et al (4),

has fractionated the basic components of the

roots of A. heterophyllum into three broad

fractions namely a) weak base fraction b)

strong base fraction and c) very strong base

fraction. The strong- base fraction

containing the bulk of the alkaloids is

known to consists mainly of atisine (I). The

remaining six new alkaloids are tabulated in

table I. The weak base fraction yielded

heterophyllisine, heterophylline and

heterophyllidine. These compounds are

lactone alkaloids which are structurally

related to heteratisine. The strong base

fraction yielded besides atisine, two new

alkaloids atidine and F-dihydroatisine

similarly the very strong base fraction yilded

in addition to hetidine, alkaloids designated

as hetidine and hetisinone. All these

alkaloids are tabulated in table I which are in

the order of their Pka-values.

 

6.  Abhaya / Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) Fruit pulp

a. In Terminalia chebula, 33% of the total phytoconstituents are hydrolysable tannins (which may vary from

20-50%) and are responsible for pharmacological activity. These tannins contain phenolic carboxylic acid like

gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulic acid and gallotannins such as 1,6 di-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 3,4,6 tri-O-galloyl-β-

D-glucose, 2,3,4,6 tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6 penta-Ogalloyl-β-D-glucose. Ellagitannin such as

punacalagin, casurarinin, corilagin and terchebulin and others such as chebulanin, neochebulinic acid, chebulagic

acid and chebulinic acid reported in literature23,24. The tannin content varies with the geological variation. Flavonol

glycosides, triterpenoids, coumarin conjugated with gallic acid called chebulin, as well as phenolic compounds

were also isolated25.

Various methods have been reported for extraction of phytoconstituents from Terminalia chebula for

studying their pharmacological activities. total eight compounds viz. gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate,

chebulagic acid, tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid and penta-O galloyl-β-D-glucose from

Terminalia chebula were isolated on reverse phase chromatography26 There are seven varieties of Terminalia

chebula all of which are more or less used in similar fashion but vary in specific usages and quality

 

 

7.                7. cow’s Urine

a.     Antimicrobial activity of CU from both indigenous and hybrid breeds against E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris, S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fragi, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptomyces aureofaciens, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis, and Leishmania donovani has been observed in various studies. In these studies the antimicrobial activity of CU was found to be comparable with ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, tetracycline, streptomycin, cefpodoxime and gentamycin in different studies

 

b.     Fungicidal effect against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus, Malassezia, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata has been observed in various studies. CU was highly stable and capable in inhibiting the growth of Malassezia fungi (90-95%) responsible for causing dandruff for a longer time (4-5 days), than rice water (due to B. cereus growth in rice water) which was stably capable of inhibiting 85-90% of the growth for 3-4 days. Neem leaves extract and Lemon Juice extract were comparatively less effective in this study

 

c.       The use of herbs and minerals (like chavanprash and panchgavya) for improving the overall resistance of the body against common infections and pathogens has been a guiding principal of Ayurveda. Ancient books on Ayurveda state that consuming CU daily increases the resistance to diseases by up to 104%. CU enhances the humoral, and cell-mediated immune response in mice  CUD was found to augment B- and T-lymphocyte blastogenesis; IgG, IgA and IgM antibody titers in mice. It has been observed that CU also increases the phagocytic activity of macrophages and is thus helpful in the prevention and control of bacterial infections. The level of both interleukins -1 and - 2 in mice was increased by 30.9% and 11.0%, respectively, and in rats these levels were increased significantly by 14.75% and 33.6%, respectively . CUD has been reported to be a potent and safe immunomodulator, which increases both humoral, and cell-mediated immunity in mice.

Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated on various parameters in a study by Verma et al. using CU for 30 days. There was a 55% increase in phagocytic index, and a significant increase (16%) in neutrophil adhesion on regular use of whole freeze dried CU. CU has the potential to boost the immune functions by increasing the white blood cells counts and subsequently reducing the red blood cells count to a certain extent

 

 

 

 

Reference

 

1.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20731552

 

 

 

2.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14993817

 

3.     http://ijpsr.com/bft-article/plumbago-zeylanica-a-phytopharmacological-review/?view=fulltext

 

4.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4484047/

 

5.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912813/

 

6.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4843278/

 

7.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22569298

 

 

8.     https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4566776/